Braille Monitor

Vol. 50, No. 1                                                                    January 2007

Barbara Pierce, editor

Published in inkprint, in Braille, and on cassette by

The National Federation of the Blind
Marc Maurer, president


National Office
1800 Johnson Street
Baltimore, Maryland 21230
telephone: (410) 659-9314
email address: nfb@nfb.org
Web site address: http://www.nfb.org
NFBnet.org: http://www.nfbnet.org
NFB-NEWSLINE® information: (866) 504-7300


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subscription requests, and orders for NFB literature
should be sent to the National Office.
Articles for the Monitor and letters to the editor may also
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Monitor subscriptions cost the Federation about twenty-five dollars per year.
Members are invited, and nonmembers are requested, to cover
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National Federation of the Blind and sent to:

National Federation of the Blind
1800 Johnson Street
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        ISSN 0006-8829



Atlanta Site of 2007 NFB Convention

The 2007 convention of the National Federation of the Blind will take place in Atlanta, Georgia, June 30 through July 6, at the Marriott Marquis Hotel at 265 Peachtree Center Avenue, Atlanta, Georgia 30303. For room reservations call (404) 521-0000.

The 2007 room rates are singles, doubles, and twins $61 and triples and quads $66 a night, plus a 15 percent sales tax. The hotel is accepting reservations now. A $60-per-room deposit is required to make a reservation. Fifty percent of the deposit will be refunded if notice is given to the hotel of a reservation cancellation before June 1, 2007. The other 50 percent is not refundable.

Rooms will be available on a first-come, first-served basis. Reservations may be made before June 1, 2007, assuming that rooms are still available. After that time the hotel will not hold our block of rooms for the convention. In other words you should get your reservation in as soon as possible.

Guestroom amenities include cable television, coffee pot, iron and ironing board, hair dryer, and high-speed Internet access. The Marriott has several excellent restaurants. The hotel is currently undergoing renovations that will result in some alteration in the configuration of these. We will report on the changes as the convention draws near. It still features indoor and outdoor pools, solarium, health club, whirlpool, and sauna.

We strongly recommend preregistering for the convention itself online or by mail any time starting March 1 and ending May 31. The 2007 convention will follow what many think of as our usual schedule:

Saturday, June 30 Seminar Day
Sunday, July 1 Registration Day
Monday, July 2 Board Meeting and Division Day
Tuesday, July 3 March for Independence and Opening Session
Wednesday, July 4 Tour Day
Thursday, July 5 Banquet Day
Friday, July 6 Business Session



Vol. 50, No. 1                                                                       January 2007



Who Are the Blind Who Lead the Blind?

Jacobus tenBroek
Kenneth Jernigan
Marc Maurer
Fredric Schroeder
Peggy Elliott
Gary Wunder
Pam Allen
Ron Brown
Amy Buresh
Dan Burke
Donald Capps
Sam Gleese
Carl Jacobsen
Cathy Jackson
Anil Lewis
Chris McKenzie
Alpidio Rolón
Joe Ruffalo
Dan Wenzel

In the Spotlight

To Live Is to Give--My Experience in the Middle East
by Rebekah Jakeman

America Online: An Internet Service that the Blind Can Use
by Curtis Chong

Of Harvests and Gears: Fundraising for the NFB
by Jennifer Bose

Fifth Annual Meet-the-Blind-Month Campaign
by Jerry Lazarus


Monitor Miniatures


Copyright 2006 National Federation of the Blind



Who Are the Blind Who Lead the Blind?

From the Editor: Though brief profiles of the members of the current board of directors can be found on our Web site at any time, we periodically revise and reprint in the Braille Monitor a compilation we have used for years. It includes profiles of Dr. tenBroek, Dr. Jernigan, and members of the current NFB board of directors. It is high time to provide it again, so here it is:


The National Federation of the Blind has become by far the most significant force in the affairs of the blind today, and its actions have had an impact on many other groups and programs. The Federation's president, Marc Maurer, radiates confidence and persuasiveness. He says, "If I can find twenty people who care about a thing, then we can get it done. And if there are two hundred, two thousand, or twenty thousand, that's even better."

The National Federation of the Blind is a civil rights movement with all that the term implies. President Maurer says, "You can't expect to obtain freedom by having somebody else hand it to you. You have to do the job yourself. The French could not have won the American Revolution for us. That would merely have shifted the governing authority from one colonial power to another. So too we the blind are the only ones who can win freedom for the blind, which is both frightening and reassuring. If we don't get out and do what we must, we have no one to blame but ourselves. We have control of the essential elements."

Although many organizations and agencies for the blind exist in the United States today, there is only one National Federation of the Blind. This organization was established in 1940 when the blind of seven states--California, Illinois, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin--sent delegates to its first convention at Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. Since that time progress has been rapid and steady. The Federation is recognized by blind men and women throughout the entire country as their primary means of joint expression; and today--with active affiliates in every state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico--it is the primary voice of the nation's blind.

To explain this spectacular growth, three questions must be asked and answered: (1) What are the conditions in the general environment of the blind which have impelled them to organize? (2) What are the purpose, belief, and philosophy of the National Federation of the Blind? (3) Who are its leaders, and what are their qualifications to understand and solve the problems of blindness? Even a brief answer to these questions is instructive.

When the Federation came into being in 1940, the outlook for the blind was anything but bright. The nation's welfare system was so discouraging to individual initiative that those forced to accept public assistance had little hope of ever achieving self-support again, and those who sought competitive employment in regular industry or the professions found most of the doors barred against them. The universal good will expressed toward the blind was not the wholesome good will of respect felt toward equals; it was the misguided good will of pity felt toward inferiors. In effect the system said to the blind, "Sit on the sidelines of life. This game is not for you. If you have creative talents, we are sorry, but we cannot use them." The Federation came into being to combat these expressions of discrimination and to promote new ways of thought concerning blindness. Although great progress has been made toward the achievement of these goals, much still remains to be done.

The Federation believes that blind people are essentially normal and that blindness in itself is not a mental or psychological handicap. It can be reduced to the level of a mere physical nuisance. Legal, economic, and social discrimination based upon the false assumption that the blind are somehow different from the sighted must be abolished, and equal opportunity must be made available to blind people. Because of their personal experience with blindness, the blind themselves are best qualified to lead the way in solving their own problems, but the general public should be invited to participate in finding solutions. Upon these fundamentals the National Federation of the Blind predicates its philosophy.

As for the leadership of the organization, all of the officers and members of the board of directors are blind, and all give generously of their time and resources in promoting the work of the Federation. The board consists of seventeen elected members, five of whom are the constitutional officers of the organization. These members of the board of directors represent a wide cross-section of the blind population of the United States. Their backgrounds are different, and their experiences vary widely; but they are drawn together by the common bond of having met blindness individually and successfully in their own lives and by their united desire to see other blind people have the opportunity to do likewise. A profile of the leadership of the organization shows why it is so effective and demonstrates the progress made by blind people during the past half-century and more--for in the story of the lives of these leaders can be found the greatest testimonial to the soundness of the Federation's philosophy. The cumulative record of their individual achievements is an overwhelming proof, leading to an inescapable conclusion.

Jacobus tenBroek
Founder of the National Federation of the Blind
(Author, Jurist, and Professor)

The moving force in the founding of the National Federation of the Blind, and its spiritual and intellectual father, was Jacobus tenBroek. Born in 1911, young tenBroek (the son of a prairie homesteader in Canada) lost the sight of one eye as the result of a bow-and-arrow accident at the age of seven. His remaining eyesight deteriorated until at the age of fourteen he was totally blind. Shortly afterward he and his family traveled to Berkeley so that he could attend the California School for the Blind. Within three years he was an active part of the local organization of the blind.

By 1934 he had joined Dr. Newel Perry and others to form the California Council of the Blind, which later became the National Federation of the Blind of California. This organization was a prototype for the nationwide federation that tenBroek would form six years later.

The same year the Federation was founded (1940), Jacobus tenBroek received his doctorate in jurisprudence from the University of California, completed a year as Brandeis Research Fellow at Harvard Law School, and was appointed to the faculty of the University of Chicago Law School.

Two years later he began teaching at the University of California at Berkeley, becoming a full professor in 1953, chairman of the department of speech in 1955, and professor of political science in 1963. During this period Professor tenBroek published several books and more than fifty articles and monographs in the fields of welfare, government, and law--establishing a reputation as one of the nation's foremost scholars on matters of constitutional law. One of his books, Prejudice, War, and the Constitution, won the Woodrow Wilson Award of the American Political Science Association in 1955 as the best book of the year on government and democracy. Other books are California's Dual System of Family Law (1964), Hope Deferred: Public Welfare and the Blind (1959), The Antislavery Origins of the Fourteenth Amendment (1951)--revised and republished in 1965 as Equal Under Law, and The Law of the Poor (edited in 1966).
In the course of his academic career Professor tenBroek was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Palo Alto and was twice the recipient of fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation. In 1947 he earned the degree of S.J.D. from Harvard Law School. In addition he was awarded honorary degrees by two institutions of higher learning.

Dr. tenBroek's lifelong companion was his devoted wife Hazel. Together they raised three children and worked inseparably on research, writing, and academic and Federation projects. Until her declining health prevented travel, Mrs. tenBroek continued as an active member of the organized blind movement. She died October 7, 2005.

In 1950 Dr. tenBroek was made a member of the California State Board of Social Welfare by Governor Earl Warren. Later reappointed to the board three times, he was elected its chairman in 1960 and served in that capacity until 1963.

The brilliance of Jacobus tenBroek's career led some skeptics to suggest that his achievements were beyond the reach of what they called the "ordinary blind person." What tenBroek recognized in himself was not that he was exceptional, but that he was normal--that his blindness had nothing to do with whether he could be a successful husband and father, do scholarly research, write a book, make a speech, guide students engaged in social action, or otherwise lead a productive life.

Jacobus tenBroek died of cancer at the age of fifty-six in 1968. His successor, Kenneth Jernigan, in a memorial address, said truly of him: "The relationship of this man to the organized blind movement, which he brought into being in the United States and around the world, was such that it would be equally accurate to say that the man was the embodiment of the movement or that the movement was the expression of the man.

"For tens of thousands of blind Americans over more than a quarter of a century, he was leader, mentor, spokesman, and philosopher. He gave to the organized blind movement the force of his intellect and the shape of his dreams. He made it the symbol of a cause barely imagined before his coming: the cause of self-expression, self-direction, and self-sufficiency on the part of blind people. Step by step, year by year, action by action, he made that cause succeed."

Kenneth Jernigan
(Teacher, Writer, and Administrator)

Kenneth Jernigan was a leader in the National Federation of the Blind for more than forty-six years. He was president (with one brief interruption) from 1968 until July of 1986. Even after Jernigan ceased to be president of the Federation, he continued as one of its principal leaders until his death on October 12, 1998. He was loved and respected by tens of thousands--members and nonmembers of the Federation, both blind and sighted.

Born in 1926, Kenneth Jernigan grew up on a farm in central Tennessee. He received his elementary and secondary education at the school for the blind in Nashville. After high school Jernigan managed a furniture shop in Beech Grove, Tennessee, making all the furniture and operating the business.

In the fall of 1945 Jernigan matriculated at Tennessee Technological University in Cookeville. Active in campus affairs from the outset, he was soon elected to office in his class and to important positions in other student organizations. Jernigan graduated with honors in 1948 with a B.S. degree in social science. In 1949 he received a master's degree in English from Peabody College in Nashville, where he subsequently completed additional graduate study. While at Peabody he was a staff writer for the school newspaper, co-founder of an independent literary magazine, and member of the Writers' Club. In 1949 he received the Captain Charles W. Browne Award, at that time presented annually by the American Foundation for the Blind to the nation's outstanding blind student.

Jernigan then spent four years as a teacher of English at the Tennessee School for the Blind. During this period he became active in the Tennessee Association of the Blind (now the National Federation of the Blind of Tennessee). He was elected to the vice presidency of the organization in 1950 and to the presidency in 1951. In that position he planned the 1952 annual convention of the National Federation of the Blind, which was held in Nashville, and he then planned every NFB national convention through 1998.

In 1952 Jernigan was first elected to the NFB board of directors, and in 1953 he was appointed to the faculty of the California Orientation Center for the Blind in Oakland, where he played a major role in developing the best program of its kind then in existence.
From 1958 until 1978 he served as director of the Iowa State Commission for the Blind. In this capacity he was responsible for administering state rehabilitation programs, home teaching, home industries, an orientation and adjustment center, and library services for the blind and physically handicapped. The improvements made in services to the blind of Iowa under the Jernigan administration have never before or since been equaled anywhere in the country.

In 1960 the Federation presented Jernigan with its Newel Perry Award for outstanding accomplishment in services for the blind. In 1968 he was given a special citation by the president of the United States. Harold Russell, the chairman of the President's Committee on Employment of the Handicapped, came to Des Moines to present the award. He said: "If a person must be blind, it is better to be blind in Iowa than anywhere else in the nation or in the world. This statement," the citation went on to say, "sums up the story of the Iowa Commission for the Blind during the Jernigan years and more pertinently of its director, Kenneth Jernigan. That narrative is much more than a success story. It is the story of high aspiration magnificently accomplished--of an impossible dream become reality."

Jernigan received too many honors and awards to enumerate individually, including honorary doctorates from four institutions of higher education. He was also asked to serve as a special consultant to or member of numerous boards and advisory bodies. The most notable among these are member of the National Advisory Committee on Services for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (appointed in 1972 by the secretary of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare); special consultant on services for the blind (appointed in 1975 by the federal commissioner of rehabilitation); advisor on museum programs for blind visitors to the Smithsonian Institution (appointed in 1975); special advisor to the White House Conference on Library and Information Services (appointed in 1977 by President Gerald Ford). In July of 1990 Jernigan received an award for distinguished service from the president of the United States.

To date he has been the only person ever to be invited to deliver keynote addresses to the primary gatherings of the two worldwide blindness organizations in a single year: the fourth quadrennial meeting of the World Blind Union in August 1996 and the annual meeting of the International Council for the Education of the Visually Impaired in spring 1997. In 1998 he received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Council of State Agencies for the Blind, the first ever International Leadership Award from the American Foundation for the Blind, and the Canadian National Institute for the Blind's Winston Gordon Award for his leadership in establishing NEWSLINE® for the Blind.

Kenneth Jernigan's writings and speeches on blindness are better known and have touched the lives of more blind people than those of any other person writing today. From 1991 until his death he edited the NFB's immensely popular series of paperbacks known as the Kernel Books. On July 23, 1975, he spoke before the National Press Club in Washington, D.C., and his address was broadcast live throughout the nation on National Public Radio. Through the years he appeared repeatedly on network radio and television interview programs.

In 1978 Jernigan moved to Baltimore to become executive director of the American Brotherhood for the Blind (now the American Action Fund for Blind Children and Adults) and director of the National Center for the Blind. As president of the National Federation of the Blind at that time, he led the organization through the most impressive period of growth in its history to date. The creation and development of the National Center for the Blind and the NFB's expansion into its position today as the most influential voice and force in the affairs of the blind stand as the culmination of Kenneth Jernigan's lifework and a tribute to his brilliance and commitment to the blind of this nation.

From 1987 to 1997 he played an active role internationally as president of the North America/Caribbean region of the World Blind Union. He traveled widely and spoke frequently before international groups about blindness and the NFB's positive philosophy that changes lives and society.

Jernigan's dynamic wife Mary Ellen remains an active member of the Federation. Although sighted, she works with dedication in the movement and is known and loved by thousands of Federationists throughout the country.

Speaking at a convention of the National Federation of the Blind, Jernigan said of the organization and its philosophy (and also of his own philosophy):

"As we look ahead, the world holds more hope than gloom for us--and, best of all, the future is in our own hands. For the first time in history we can be our own masters and do with our lives what we will; and the sighted (as they learn who we are and what we are) can and will work with us as equals and partners. In other words we are capable of full membership in society, and the sighted are capable of accepting us as such--and, for the most part, they want to.

"We want no Uncle Toms--no sellouts, no apologists, no rationalizers; but we also want no militant hell-raisers or unbudging radicals. One will hurt our cause as much as the other. We must win true equality in society, but we must not dehumanize ourselves in the process; and we must not forget the graces and amenities, the compassions and courtesies which comprise civilization itself and distinguish people from animals and life from existence.

"Let people call us what they will and say what they please about our motives and our movement. There is only one way for the blind to achieve first-class citizenship and true equality. It must be done through collective action and concerted effort; and that means the National Federation of the Blind. There is no other way, and those who say otherwise are either uninformed or unwilling to face the facts.

"We are the strongest force in the affairs of the blind today, and we must also recognize the responsibilities of power and the fact that we must build a world that is worth living in when the war is over--and, for that matter, while we are fighting it. In short, we must use both love and a club, and we must have sense enough to know when to do which--long on compassion, short on hatred; and, above all, not using our philosophy as a cop-out for cowardice or inaction or rationalization. We know who we are and what we must do--and we will never go back. The public is not against us. Our determination proclaims it; our gains confirm it; our humanity demands it."

Marc Maurer
(Attorney and Executive)

Born in 1951, Marc Maurer was the second in a family of six children. His blindness was caused by overexposure to oxygen after his premature birth, but he and his parents were determined that this should not prevent him from living a full and normal life.

He began his education at the Iowa Braille and Sight Saving School, where he became an avid Braille reader. In the fifth grade he returned home to Boone, Iowa, where he attended parochial schools. During high school (having taken all the courses in the curriculum), he simultaneously took classes at the junior college.

Maurer ran three different businesses before finishing high school: a paper route, a lawn care business, and an enterprise producing and marketing maternity garter belts designed by his mother. This last venture was so successful that his younger brother took over the business when Maurer left home.

In the summer of 1969, after graduating from high school, Maurer enrolled as a student at the Orientation and Adjustment Center of the Iowa Commission for the Blind and attended his first convention of the NFB. He was delighted to discover in both places that blind people and what they thought mattered. This was a new phenomenon in his experience, and it changed his life. Kenneth Jernigan was director of the Iowa Commission for the Blind at the time, and Maurer soon grew to admire and respect him. When Maurer expressed an interest in overhauling a car engine, the Commission for the Blind purchased the necessary equipment. Maurer completed that project and actually worked for a time as an automobile mechanic. He believes today that mastering engine repair played an important part in changing his attitudes about blindness.

Maurer graduated cum laude from the University of Notre Dame in 1974. As an undergraduate he took an active part in campus life, including election to the Honor Society. Then he enrolled at the University of Indiana School of Law, where he received his Doctor of Jurisprudence in 1977.

Maurer was elected president of the Student Division of the National Federation of the Blind in 1971 and reelected in 1973 and 1975. Also in 1971 at the age of twenty he was elected vice president of the National Federation of the Blind of Indiana. He was elected president in 1973 and reelected in 1975.

During law school Maurer worked summers for the office of the secretary of state of Indiana. After graduation he moved to Toledo, Ohio, to accept a position as the director of the Senior Legal Assistance Project operated by ABLE (Advocates for Basic Legal Equality).

In 1978 Maurer moved to Washington, D.C., to become an attorney with the Rates and Routes Division in the office of the general counsel of the Civil Aeronautics Board. Initially he worked on rates cases but soon advanced to dealing with international matters and then to doing research and writing opinions on constitutional issues and board action. He wrote opinions for the chairman and made appearances before the full board to discuss those opinions.

In 1981 he went into private practice in Baltimore, Maryland, where he specialized in civil litigation and property matters. But increasingly he concentrated on representing blind individuals and groups in the courts. He has now become one of the most experienced and knowledgeable attorneys in the country regarding the laws, precedents, and administrative rulings concerning civil rights and discrimination against the blind. He is a member of the Bar in Indiana, Ohio, Iowa, and Maryland and a member of the Bar of the Supreme Court of the United States.

Maurer has always been active in civic and political affairs, having run for the state legislature from Baltimore. Through the years he has also served on the board of directors of his apartment complex's tenants association, the board of his community association, and the school board of his children's school. In 1981 Maurer was elected president of the National Association of Blind Lawyers and served in that office until 1985. From 1984 until 1986 he served as president of the National Federation of the Blind of Maryland.

An important companion in Maurer's activities and a leader in her own right is his wife Patricia. The Maurers were married in 1973, and they have two children--David Patrick, born March 10, 1984, and Dianna Marie, born July 12, 1987.

At the 1985 convention in Louisville, Kentucky, Kenneth Jernigan announced that he would not stand for re-election as president of the National Federation of the Blind the following year, and he recommended Marc Maurer as his successor. In Kansas City in 1986 the Convention elected Maurer by resounding acclamation, and he has served as president ever since. From 1997 to 2000 he also served as president of the North America/Caribbean Region of the World Blind Union, and he chaired the WBU Committee on the Restoration of the Louis Braille Birthplace in Coupvray, France. In 2004 he became vice president of the World Blind Union North America/Caribbean Region, and in 2006 reassumed the presidency.

Maurer was honored with the Maryland Black Caucus's Leadership Award in 1985, the United States Presidential Medal for Leadership in 1990, the 1990 Heritage Award from the Canadian National Institute for the Blind, and the Baltimore Business Journal's 1999 Innovation Award for Excellence in Workplace Technology. Recent honors include the 2002 VME Robert Dole Award and the Daily Record's 2002 Innovator of the Year award. He joined President George W. Bush in the Oval Office in July of 2001 to celebrate the success of the NFB Everest Expedition and once again when President Bush signed into law the Help America Vote Act of 2002. He received honorary degrees from California's Menlo College in 1998 and the University of Louisville in 1999. In 1987 he delivered an address at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, and in 2000 he was invited to deliver addresses on civil rights at Oxford University and Birmingham University in the United Kingdom. He is now editor of the NFB's Kernel Book series of optimistic paperbacks written by blind people about blindness.

As president of the National Federation of the Blind, Maurer is boldly leading the organization into a new test of its resolve, beginning with the visionary expansion of the National Center for the Blind--the National Federation of the Blind Jernigan Institute, which was completed in the spring of 2004. The facility, located on the grounds of the National Center, has added more than 170,000 square feet to the NFB's headquarters complex. The Institute, which is the first of its kind, conceived and built by the blind for the blind, is developing innovative education, technologies, products, and services that support independence for the world's blind. One of the early products of the Institute is the Kurzweil–National Federation of the Blind handheld reading machine, produced in conjunction with the noted futurist and inventor, Raymond Kurzweil. Maurer's unswerving determination to succeed and his absolute conviction that the organized blind are the best-equipped people to solve the problems facing them have set the tone and are guiding the organization into this exciting new period of growth and accomplishment.

Fredric Schroeder
First Vice President
(Research Professor and Orientation and Mobility Pioneer)

Dr. Fredric K. Schroeder was born in Lima, Peru, in 1957. He and his brother Steve were adopted and moved to the United States when he was nineteen months old. Born with normal vision, Dr. Schroeder became blind at the age of seven after suffering a severe allergic reaction known as Stephens-Johnson's Syndrome. The reaction did not immediately take all his sight, but his vision deteriorated gradually over a nine-year period, leaving him totally blind at the age of sixteen.

He attended public school in Albuquerque, New Mexico, but received no special education services to teach him to read Braille or learn any alternative techniques that would allow him to function competitively. Although raised in New Mexico, Dr. Schroeder spent much time in San Francisco receiving medical treatment in an effort to save his vision. As a result he was living in California when he became totally blind. For this reason, following graduation from high school, Dr. Schroeder attended the Orientation Center for the Blind in Albany, California. There he found the Federation, and his involvement in the organization has been central to his life and work ever since.

Through the Federation he met blind people from all walks of life who encouraged him, eventually convincing him that he could live a normal, productive life. Dr. Schroeder attended San Francisco State University, earning a bachelor’s degree in psychology in 1977 and a master's degree in special education in 1978. After completing that degree, he went to work teaching cane travel in the Nebraska Services for the Visually Impaired's orientation center in Lincoln. For the next two years he returned each summer to California to complete postgraduate studies in orientation and mobility in order to become eligible for national certification as a cane travel teacher. This was revolutionary at the time. He was the first blind person ever to be admitted to a university program in orientation and mobility. Although he graduated with distinction, he was denied certification solely on the basis of blindness. Nevertheless, that did not stop him from continuing with his career or education. He earned a Ph.D. in education administration from the University of New Mexico in May 1994.
His professional achievements are impressive. In 1980 Dr. Schroeder returned to New Mexico to work as a teacher of blind children for the Albuquerque Public Schools. Knowing how important the Federation had been in his own life he immediately began integrating Federation philosophy into his work. In a year he was running the program for blind children across the district. The results were dramatic and the program so effective that in the early 1980s the district's program for blind children was featured on the Today Show.
While at that time in New Mexico programs for blind children were the finest in the nation, services for blind adults were among the poorest. As president of the New Mexico affiliate of the National Federation of the Blind, Dr. Schroeder was deeply troubled by the lack of employment opportunities for blind people in the state.

In 1986, after a long, bitter legislative fight, the Federation succeeded in establishing the New Mexico Commission for the Blind. Dr. Schroeder was appointed the Commission's first executive director, giving him the opportunity to bring Federation philosophy into the work of the newly founded agency. In a short time the program was transformed, and soon the New Mexico Commission for the Blind stood out as the most progressive and successful rehabilitation agency in the country. Under Dr. Schroeder's leadership blind people in New Mexico were being assisted to go to work in very good jobs—in fact, jobs paying so well that they had higher earnings than blind people anywhere else in the nation.

Dr. Schroeder's accomplishments did not go unnoticed. In 1994 President Bill Clinton appointed Schroeder to serve as the ninth commissioner of the Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) within the U.S. Department of Education. As RSA commissioner he administered a $2.5 billion dollar program providing services to more than one million people with disabilities each year. He focused on high-quality employment--better jobs, jobs with a future, jobs enabling people to achieve a good and equitable standard of living. His crowning achievement as RSA commissioner was ending the shameful practice of placing blind people in sheltered workshops, often at subminimum wages, rather than providing training to enable them to obtain high-quality, integrated employment with better wages and the opportunity for upward mobility. Following his service as RSA commissioner, he joined the faculty of the Interwork Institute at San Diego State University. He now works as a research professor specializing in leadership and public policy in vocational rehabilitation.
His involvement in the National Federation of the Blind continues. On July 5, 2006, Dr. Schroeder was unanimously elected first vice president of the National Federation of the Blind. In addition to his service on the Federation's board of directors, he serves as the president of the National Federation of the Blind of Virginia and often represents the Federation at national and international meetings and conferences.

Dr. Schroeder is married to Cathy Nusser Schroeder. They have two children, Carrie, born in 1981, and Matthew, born in 1983. Dr. Schroeder is the first to admit that it is the Federation that has made the difference in his life, enabling him to achieve professionally and to live a normal, productive life. In his own words, "We still have much work to do. Far too many blind people still face discrimination, still live in isolation and poverty, still lack access to the encouragement and training they need to live productive, integrated lives. Nevertheless, in spite of all that remains to be done, because of the National Federation of the Blind, opportunities are better for blind people today than at any time in history. The change we have made cannot be turned back, cannot be taken away. We have changed forever what it means to be blind, and we and society are better off as a result."

Peggy and Doug Elliott
Second Vice President
(Attorney, Political Activist, and Community Leader)

Born in 1953 and raised in Grinnell, Iowa, Peggy Elliott attended regular schools until the middle of the ninth grade. When her eye condition was diagnosed as an irreversible decline into total blindness, her father cried for the first and only time in her life--at least as far as she knows.

Elliott then spent what she characterizes as two and a half unhappy years at the Iowa school for the blind. Academically she learned nothing that she had not already been taught in public schools. The students were discouraged from learning to use the white cane and were never allowed off campus unless they were accompanied by a sighted person. But, most soul-destroying of all, the students were discouraged from aspiring to success or from setting themselves challenging goals. Elliott resisted the stifling atmosphere and drew down upon herself the wrath of the school administration, which refused to permit her to complete high school there, forcing her to go back to public school.

Knowing that she was not prepared to make this transition, she and her parents sought help from Kenneth Jernigan, then director of the Iowa Commission for the Blind. Elliott enrolled at the Orientation and Adjustment Center, where she mastered the skills of blindness and explored for the first time the healthy and positive philosophy of blindness that has subsequently directed her life.
Elliott went on to Iowa's Cornell College, where she achieved an excellent academic record and edited the Cornellian, the school newspaper. She then completed law school at Yale University, receiving her J.D. degree in 1979.

After graduation from law school, Elliott passed the Iowa Bar in January 1980. She then began a difficult job search. Although her academic standing at Yale was better than that of most of her classmates, she did not receive a single job offer despite the intensive interviewing she had done during her final year of law school. Virtually all Yale-trained attorneys leave the university with offers in hand. The inference was inescapable: employers were discriminating against Elliott because of her blindness. She was eventually hired as Assistant County Attorney for Woodbury County in Sioux City, Iowa, where she prosecuted defendants on behalf of the people. In 1985 she moved back to her hometown of Grinnell, where she established the private law practice she has worked in since that time.

Elliott's lifetime interest in helping to improve the world around her has been expressed in politics as well as in Federation activity. In 1976 she was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in Kansas City, during which she appeared on national television and in a national news magazine, acquainting the public with the philosophy of the National Federation of the Blind and the real needs of blind people. At the end of the convention she seconded the nomination of Senator Robert Dole to be the Republican candidate for vice president of the United States.

In 1986 she ran unsuccessfully for the Iowa State Senate as a Republican in District 27. Her interest in community service has continued through her election to four four-year terms on the Grinnell City Council and in other community organizations. During her tenure on city council she chaired the public works and grounds committee, which manages building, repair, and snow removal from streets, parks, the cemetery, and the jet-ready airport; provision and expansion of water and sewer service; and (of particular interest to her) handling of solid waste and recycling.

Elliott's work in the National Federation of the Blind has been as impressive as her professional career. She held office in the NFB student divisions in Iowa and Connecticut and then served as president of the national student division from 1977 to 1979. She was president of the National Federation of the Blind of Iowa from 1981 through 2006, serving the blind of the state with distinction for twenty-five years. Elliott was first elected to the NFB board of directors in 1977, and in 1984 she was elected second vice president.
Since 1984 Elliott, a 1976 scholarship winner herself, has chaired the National Federation of the Blind's Scholarship Committee. Every year approximately thirty scholarships, ranging in value from $3,000 to $12,000, are presented to the best blind college students in the nation.

On December 28, 1993, Peggy Pinder and Doug Elliott were married in Grinnell, Iowa, where the couple continues to live happily in their hundred-year-old home. Before their marriage Doug was president of the NFB of Nevada. He is a medical social worker by training and now manages the couple's real estate holdings.

Gary Wunder
(Programmer Analyst-Expert and Electronics Technologist)

Gary Wunder was born three months prematurely in 1955, the oldest of four children. His family lived in Kansas City, Missouri, and Wunder remembers that, since he had been blind from birth, he managed to persuade everyone in his family except his father to do precisely what he wanted. It would be many years before Wunder could appreciate his father's instinctive understanding that Gary had to learn to do things for himself.

Wunder tells with amusement the story of his dawning awareness of his blindness. When he was quite young, his home had sliding glass doors separating the living room from the patio. When those doors were closed, he could not hear and therefore did not know what was happening on the other side and assumed that no one else could either. One day he found several soft drink bottles on the patio and broke them. His father then opened the doors and asked if he had broken the bottles. Gary said he had not and that he did not know how they had been broken. His father then astonished him by saying that both his parents had watched him break the bottles and that his mother was now crying because she had thought surely her baby couldn't tell a lie. Gary's response was to say, "Well, she knows better now."

Wunder attended grades one through five at a Kansas City public school. When he was ten, a boy who attended the Missouri School for the Blind persuaded him that he was missing real life by staying at home. At the school, his friend told him, kids rode trains and buses. They could bowl and swim and didn't have to listen to parents. As a result Wunder did some persuading at home and was on hand for sixth grade and some necessary but painful lessons about that real world.

At the close of seventh grade Wunder returned to public schools, having learned several vitally important lessons: he knew the basics of using a white cane; he recognized that his father's demands on him had sprung from strong love and eagerness for his son to succeed; and he understood that people beyond his own family had worth and deserved his respect. But he had also learned that the school for the blind was not the promised land, and he was delighted to be once more in public schools for eighth grade and high school. He was elected to the National Honor Society his senior year but struggled with the mechanics of getting his work done. Braille was not readily available, and readers were hard to recruit without money to pay them.

Wunder planned to attend the University of Missouri at Kansas City in order to live with his grandmother, but, after a taste of freedom at the orientation center in Columbia, Missouri, the summer before college, he decided to enroll at the university's Columbia campus, where everyone walked everywhere and where he could contrive as many as three or four dates an evening if he hurried from place to place.
Wunder enjoys recounting the adventure which persuaded him that a blind person should always carry a white cane: "I was having dinner with a young woman who lived near me, so I had not brought my cane, figuring that I wouldn't need it. To my consternation and her distress, my plate of liver and onions slid into my lap. She asked if I wanted her to walk me home so that I could change. I was already so embarrassed that I assured her I would be right back and that I did not need her assistance. The busiest intersection in Columbia lay between me and clean slacks, and after I successfully survived that street crossing, I swore that I would never again be caught without my cane."

Wunder decided to major in political science and philosophy because he felt compelled to avoid the science and math that he loved but feared to take. During his sophomore year he met a professor from Central Missouri State University who suggested that he was ducking the challenge. Together they explored the question of whether or not a blind person could follow schematics and read voltmeters. The answers seemed to be yes, so Wunder transferred to Central Missouri State, where he graduated in 1977 with a degree in electronics technology.

He had done well with the courses, but he did not see how he could run a repair shop with its responsibility for mastering hundreds of schematics for appliances. He could teach electronics, but the professors from whom he had learned the most were those who had firsthand experience. He didn't want to be the theory-only kind of teacher.

Wunder looked for interim jobs after graduation while he tried to decide what to do, and he discovered the hard way that blind job-seekers have to be better than the competition in order to be considered at all. He vowed to become so well trained at doing something that would-be employers could not ignore him. He enrolled in a ten-month course in computer programming offered by the Extension Division of the University of Missouri. No blind person had ever entered the program before, but Wunder completed it successfully and was hired immediately (in the fall of 1978) by the Pathology Department of the University of Missouri Hospital and Clinics in Columbia. Years and promotions later Wunder is still successfully working at the hospital and is now a programmer analyst-expert in the Information Services Department.

Wunder first learned about the National Federation of the Blind the summer before his senior year of high school. He says, "In the beginning I thought this talk about discrimination was a pretty good racket. No one did those things to me, and I assumed that all this Federation talk about jobs being denied and parents having children taken away from them was an effective way of raising funds. I didn't realize that my father's name and reputation in my hometown were protecting me from the worst of real life. So far I had gotten what I wanted, including a motorcycle to ride on our farm and my own horse. It was some time before I recognized that these talented and committed blind people whom I was getting to know in the Federation were trying to teach me about the world that I was going to inherit. They frightened me a little, but more and more I wanted to be like them."

In late 1973, several months after Wunder started college in Columbia, a Federation organizing team arrived to establish a new chapter, and he took an active part in the preparations. Wunder was elected president, and when he transferred to Central Missouri State two years later, he organized a chapter in Warrensburg. In 1977 Wunder was elected first vice president of the NFB of Missouri, and in 1979 he became president. Except for one two-year term he has continued in that post ever since. Wunder was elected to the board of directors of the National Federation of the Blind in 1985 and in 2002 was elected secretary of the organization.

Looking back over the years of his involvement with and commitment to the Federation, Wunder says: "Despite all I learned from my parents about honor, responsibility, and the necessity to be competent, what I could never get from them was a sense of where blind people fit in a world composed mostly of sighted people. Friends and loved ones had always told me how wonderful I was (wonderful for a blind person, that is), but until I came to know members of the National Federation of the Blind, no one had the experience or knowledge to say how I could expect to measure up alongside the sighted. The NFB was the first place where I didn't get a round of applause for performing the routine activities of life. If I wanted my Federation colleagues' recognition and admiration, I had to merit them.

It sounds contradictory, but while I was learning that I wouldn't be applauded for insignificant accomplishments, I was also learning that I didn't have to possess special compensatory senses or talents to make my way in the world. When you believe that your only opportunity for success lies in being a musician but you know that your only musical talent is in listening and then you suddenly find that you are capable of doing the average job in the average place of business, your sense of freedom, hope, and possibility knows no bounds."

Gary now lives with his wife Debbie in their new home in Columbia, Missouri, where Debbie serves as the corresponding secretary of the affiliate.

Pam Allen
(Nonprofit Agency Administrator, Advocate, and Community Leader)

Pam Dubel was born in 1970 and grew up in Lancaster, New York. She became blind when she was approximately two years old as a result of retinal blastoma, a type of cancer. Although her parents were shocked by her loss of sight, they fortunately realized that she was still the same child except that she could no longer see. Through love and high expectations, they instilled in Pam a sense of pride and confidence in her ability to succeed. Growing up as the youngest of six children also helped her learn to be independent. Since she was the youngest, nobody, especially the brother a year older than she, let her get away with anything. Pam attended a private Catholic school, where she was the only blind student. Her itinerant teacher provided a sound foundation in Braille, which helped her excel in academics. Her parents expected her to do her best and to engage in activities that would make her a well-rounded person. She participated in horseback riding, skiing, and cheerleading during elementary school. During high school her interests shifted to performing in chorus, doing community service, and having fun with her friends.

While growing up, Pam had limited contact with other blind people her age. In general she had no desire to associate with other blind people. She understood that every high school senior experiences some trepidation about the transition to adulthood and independence. However, as high school graduation approached, she began to grapple with questions that her sighted peers couldn't answer. She planned to attend college, and she hoped that she would eventually find a job, but she secretly wondered if she would truly be able to obtain employment. After all, she had had difficulty finding part-time work during high school. She had also never lived on her own, and she wondered how successful she would be at that.

Although she entered college with some apprehension, she was determined to achieve her best. Her small liberal arts college provided an exciting environment in which to learn and grow. But those unanswered questions continued to nag at her. If people were amazed that she could accomplish the most insignificant tasks, would they ever treat her as an equal? She realized that she had to meet other blind people with more experience than she who could serve as role models.

Her search exposed her to a wide variety of groups and organizations of and for the blind. However, not until she attended a student seminar hosted by the National Federation of the Blind of Ohio did she begin to find the answers for which she had been searching. Although she didn't realize it at the time, the seminar marked the beginning of a new chapter of her life. At the seminar she met Barbara Pierce, president of the NFB of Ohio, who told Pam about the Louisiana Center for the Blind. More than that, she spoke with Joanne Wilson, the director, and arranged for Pam to complete an internship at the center the following May. As soon as that was completed, Joanne invited her to work as a counselor in the children's summer program that year.

Pam was a 1991 National Federation of the Blind scholarship winner when she was a senior at Denison University, where she majored in psychology and minored in women's studies. She served as vice president of the Ohio Association of Blind Students and a board member of the National Association of Blind Students, and throughout college she worked summers for Joanne Wilson at the Louisiana Center for the Blind with the Children's Program.

After graduation from college Pam decided to become a student at the Louisiana Center for the Blind. She recognized that she still needed to gain some confidence in her skills and in her ability to be a successful blind person.

Today Pam Allen is the director of the Louisiana Center for the Blind after having been the director of youth services there for many years. In that position she worked with blind infants and toddlers and their parents and also supervised the training of classroom aides to teach Braille throughout Louisiana. She coordinated summer camps and developed programs for blind children and teenagers.

People often ask her what makes the Louisiana Center for the Blind such a special place. She responds, "What sets our alumni apart from those of other kinds of rehabilitation facilities? The answer is that, by attending our center and the other centers conducted by Federationists, students are exposed to the National Federation of the Blind and its philosophy. The NFB is more than an organization; it is a loving family. Regardless of where you are, you can find members of the NFB who can give you support and encouragement when you need it. The NFB also provides a constant supply of role models who challenge you to set goals for yourself."

Allen recalls that she used to believe that she did not need other blind people. She thought that being independent meant succeeding without the help of others. Her involvement with the National Federation of the Blind has taught her that this is not true. She has learned that she needs reinforcement from her blind colleagues and friends.

Pam lives in Ruston, Louisiana, with her husband Roland Allen, an orientation and mobility instructor at Louisiana Tech University, whom she met at the Louisiana Center for the Blind. She is currently the president of the NFB of Louisiana and secretary of the National Association of Blind Rehabilitation Professionals. In July of 2002 she was elected to the National Federation of the Blind board of directors. Four years later, in 2006, she was elected to serve as treasurer of the National Federation of the Blind. Allen is also involved in a variety of community and professional organizations. She says, "Being elected to the national board has allowed me to give back and to spread the message of our movement."

Ron Brown
(Businessman and Advocate)

Ron Brown was born in Gary, Indiana, the first of eight children, to Marzette and Myra Brown on May 15, 1956. When he was a senior in high school, he became blind after he was shot on his way home from a basketball game. At the time he knew nothing about blindness and was overwhelmed by the feeling that his entire life had been radically changed in an instant. One of the first painful lessons he learned was that many of his friends could not deal with his blindness and stayed away from him. Luckily he began to make new friends, members of the National Federation of the Blind. They became inspiring role models for Ron, teaching him that it was respectable to be blind and that he could continue to strive for the goals he had set himself.

Armed with this newfound freedom, Ron graduated from Ball State University with a bachelor of science degree in health science. He then went to work at Tradewinds Rehabilitation Center in Indiana, where he met his wife Jean, who was on the staff.

Eventually he was offered a job in the Business Enterprise Program. He had always wanted to own his own business, and this gave him the opportunity to do so. He has now been in business for himself for twenty years. Recently Ron returned to school and earned a master's degree in educational psychology with a certification in orientation and mobility from Louisiana Tech University. He now owns a second business, teaching cane travel to blind people in the state of Indiana.

As Ron Brown has developed and matured in his personal life, his commitment to and service in the National Federation of the Blind have deepened as well. In the early years he was a chapter president and was then elected to the NFB of Indiana's board of directors. He was first elected president of the affiliate in 1996 and has been reelected every two years since. In 2001 he was elected to serve on the NFB board of directors.

Looking back, Ron Brown says, "Becoming a member of the national board is the fulfillment of a life dream. I have been an advocate for blind people for more than twenty-five years, and with every passing year my commitment to serving the blind of this nation increases. My life indeed changed the night I became blind, but with the perspective I now have, I must say that it was for the better."

Amy Buresh
(Rehabilitation Counselor, Advocate, and Mother)

Today Amy Rut Buresh says, “My blindness is simply another of my characteristics like my auburn hair.” She didn’t always feel that way. Amy Rut was born prematurely June 4, 1974, in Fairbury, Nebraska, and has been blind since then from retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). When she was five, her family moved from their farm to Nebraska City so that she could attend the Nebraska School for the Visually Handicapped (NSVH). Her parents made the difficult decision to relocate to a new community far away from family, friends, and all they knew so that Amy could continue to live at home during her school years rather than in a dormitory. Young Amy received a solid education and had a normal family life, complete with two pesky little brothers, family campouts, picnics, dress-up, and backyard sports. Amy has said her family’s sacrifice was crucial to her peace of mind in her formative years, and she has always been grateful her parents made the choice they did.

While a student at NSVH, Amy received training in many blindness skills, the most critical of which was Braille, which helped her to excel academically. She participated in countless musicals, the track team, cheerleading, and speech competition. In her freshman year Amy began taking classes at the public school in Nebraska City. Although she was active in extra-curricular activities, including service as president of her school’s chapter of the Fellowship of Christian Athletes, Amy found it hard to make friends. She recalls that throughout her public school years she sat through many lonely lunches. With an outgoing personality Amy easily made acquaintances, but no one invited her to parties or asked her to go to the movies.

Amy took piano lessons from kindergarten through her sophomore year and voice lessons from her freshman to her senior year. She still sings at churches, banquets, and karaoke as often as she can. She taught summer enrichment courses on the basics of Braille to school children in her hometown. Through the Nebraska Human Resources Department at the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, Amy also participated in a Big-Sister-style program, in which she was paired with a blind elementary school student whom she continued to mentor well after the program’s conclusion.

Growing up, Amy had few positive blind role models and limited contact with her blind peers. During her teenage years she first participated in youth programs sponsored by the Nebraska Commission for the Blind and Visually Impaired (NCBVI), where she gained many valuable skills and met her future husband.

For several summers Amy worked as a volunteer counselor at the Summer Kids Independence Program (SKIP) Camp, a program for children ages five to twelve, sponsored by NCBVI. She wanted to share with other blind youth the things she had learned during her high school journey: which plans had worked for her, and which hadn’t. She believed then and believes more absolutely today that mentoring is important in improving one’s attitude toward blindness and a great way to learn how to handle being different in our society.

Whether at home or at school, participating in music, academics, or athletics, Amy was successfully working and competing with her sighted peers. She was even named second runner-up in the 1990 Nebraska City Miss Applejack Pageant. Yet in addition she had to face another, deeply personal aspect of life. As a senior in high school she began wrestling with life questions that neither her family and teachers nor her sighted peers could answer. Could she really be successful as an independent blind adult? Would she ever marry and have a family? What about employment? Could she get a job and do it well?

Following graduation, Amy began conquering her fears and seeking answers to these nagging questions by attending the Orientation Training Center of the Nebraska Commission for the Blind and Visually Impaired in Lincoln. There she was first introduced to the underpinning philosophy of the National Federation of the Blind and, equally important, to kind and inspirational Federationists.
Armed with newfound confidence and skills, Amy enrolled in Peru State College, graduating with a BS in psychology, sociology, and criminal justice. Throughout her time on campus she was active as a peer mentor, in student senate, and in residence hall government. She also soloed and toured with the concert choir. She helped found and held several offices in the Association for Challenged and Enabled Students (ACES), a group dedicated to breaking down stereotypes and removing discrimination against those with disabilities. ACES sought to educate the non-disabled public about the challenges people with disabilities face. During the years at Peru State College Amy began working with women and children who experience domestic violence, a field to which she still devotes time when she can. She served as a volunteer counselor for a nonprofit in Southeast Nebraska and other agencies. She has worked tirelessly as an advocate, role model, and leader for both women and the blind. She attributes her success with blind people to her discovery of and involvement in the National Federation of the Blind.

In 1993 the NFB of Nebraska established a scholarship program, and Amy won that first scholarship. With this award she faced a turning point in the evolution of her personal philosophy and in her affiliation with the National Federation of the Blind. Growing up, she had been warned that the NFB was an organization of militants whom she should avoid. Thanks to the scholarship program, Amy attended her first state convention in the fall of 1993, discovered the warmth of the members of the NFB and the important work we are doing, and hasn't looked back since.

In fact, the very next year, in October of 1994, Amy and a handful of other concerned blind Nebraska students were granted the charter for the Nebraska Association of Blind Students within the Nebraska affiliate. She was elected president of the student division, an office she held for two years.

Since those early days in the Federation, Amy has held a number of chapter and affiliate positions in Nebraska. In 2003 she was elected to serve as affiliate president, and in the summer of 2006 she was elected by the National Convention to the board of directors of the National Federation of the Blind.

Amy and her husband Shane (a leader and dedicated Federationist in his own right) live in Lincoln with their son Noah (born May 2, 2006). She is employed as a rehabilitation counselor with the Nebraska Commission for the Blind and Visually Impaired.

Dan Burke
(Counselor, Father, and Advocate)

Dan Burke says about himself, “I was born a poor-sighted child, but I was in my mid-thirties before I admitted to myself that the visual techniques I employed at work and at home were less functional than those of friends who had no vision.” By that time in his life he had been a single father for six years, completed a master's degree, worked as a vocational rehabilitation counselor, and served on the board of the Montana Association for Rehabilitation.

Dissatisfied with the limitations presented by his lack of alternative blindness skills, he began to seek out colleagues who were blind to find out how they used alternative techniques such as the white cane and Braille. One of those colleagues was a member of the National Federation of the Blind.

Although he'd heard of the NFB, Burke had not been willing to adopt its ideas. He was now ready to test its version of the truth about blindness—that he did not have to accept a life of diminished achievement. With effective skills and healthy attitudes he could gain and enjoy the personal and professional opportunities made possible by his innate talents. Soon he was carrying a long white cane, taking part in a Braille self-study group with other Federationists and referring to himself as "blind," rather than "visually impaired" or "legally blind." He found his life was being transformed for the better.

Burke was born in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1957, the first of four children--three of whom would be diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa, a progressive condition leading to blindness. Burke’s parents did all they could to help their children live normal, active lives. Because of their efforts he grew up with a love of the natural environment of Colorado and competent in outdoor activities such as fishing, backpacking, and camping. On the other hand, because his family did not know about the NFB's philosophy or the achievements of its thousands of blind members, for them blindness was a looming tragedy in the future of the family. Without access to better counsel, they accepted the assumption that the more their children could see, the better off they would be. They dreaded the future. Thus Burke grew up believing that even poor strategies that relied on his remaining vision were superior to blindness and nonvisual skills. He remembers always being assigned to the front row in school so that he could see the blackboard; indeed he continued to accept front-row seating when reading the board was no longer possible.

When he was sixteen, Burke was denied a driver's license because of poor vision, and his parents appealed for a restricted license in the belief that a normal life for Dan would require a driver’s license to approximate the experience of his friends. The restricted license was denied, and he was secretly relieved. His grades were below his potential in high school, but he was admitted to the University of Northern Colorado. Just before his graduation from high school, his mother learned of a teacher of blind students in the district, and with her advice Burke took the ACT, using a reader for the first time. He also learned about recorded textbooks. Using readers and listening to recorded texts were the only alternative skills he took with him to college, where he struggled with shame and embarrassment despite excelling in many courses. Throughout college and for some years afterward, he cast about for career options that he thought realistic for a blind person. But without a proper understanding of blindness skills and knowing no successful blind people, he received and acted upon consistent advice to ignore his dreams and to lower his personal expectations.

In 1982 Burke moved from Colorado to Montana, but as his vision progressively worsened, his frustrations and disappointments grew. Eventually he completed a graduate degree in rehabilitation counseling at the University of Montana at Billings and went to work again. After moving to Missoula in 1992 with his seven-year-old son Sean, he was faced with new responsibilities as a single parent. "I couldn't tell my son he couldn't participate in soccer or Cub Scouts because his father was blind," he recalls. "I couldn't continue to let my world shrink--and his as well." Thus began Burke’s quest for blind role models and better techniques for dealing with vision loss.

In 1997 Burke headed for New Orleans to attend his first NFB convention. Of that experience he says: "I had eliminated so many careers for myself because I didn't think a blind person could succeed in them; suddenly at this convention I found blind people who had been doing those jobs--many of them since long before I had decided they couldn't be done by a blind person." That's when Burke began to understand the power of the NFB and its philosophy. He went home and became active in his local chapter and state affiliate. He attended Washington Seminars and lobbied for Braille literacy and changes in the Rehabilitation Act. He became involved in the reimplementation of the blind vendors program in Montana. In 2001 he helped draft and pass a purchasing requirement for state government to buy technology that was accessible by nonvisual means, and in 2005 he worked on the passage of Braille literacy legislation in Montana as well as other key legislation affecting the blind of the state.

Although his parents hadn't known the truth about blindness, they had taught him not to accept the status quo, to approach problems creatively, to get involved, and to give back to his community. With his discovery of the truth about blindness through the National Federation of the Blind, his growth as an individual now sure of his ability to handle the normal give and take of life along with his peers was complete. The NFB philosophy added to his parents’ philosophy gave him the confidence to change his life as well as the techniques with which to do it. Since finding the NFB and its positive philosophy of blindness, he has devoted much of his time and effort to the organization. He was elected to his affiliate's board of directors in 2002 and to the office of affiliate first vice president in 2003. At the 2005 Montana convention he was elected affiliate president. Then, on July 5, 2006, he was elected to the board of directors of the National Federation of the Blind.

Burke lives in Missoula, Montana, where he continues to enjoy the outdoors and other hobbies. He is the assistant director of disability services at the University of Montana and serves on the board of Montana Business Enterprises, Inc. He also serves on the board of VSA Arts Montana and the Montana Vocational Rehabilitation Council.

"I may have been born a poor-sighted child," Burke reflects, "but embracing my blindness, accepting NFB philosophy, and learning from my friends in the Federation have made my life immeasurably rich."

Donald C. Capps
(Insurance Executive and Civic Leader)

Few more compelling examples of personal independence and social contribution can be found among either sighted or blind Americans than Donald C. Capps of Columbia, South Carolina. Since the inception of the National Federation of the Blind of South Carolina in 1956, he served fifteen two-year terms as president, retiring for the last time from this office in the year 2000. He has subsequently served as president emeritus of the affiliate. Capps was elected second vice president of the National Federation of the Blind in 1959 and served in that capacity until 1968 when he was elected first vice president and served in that position until 1984. For health reasons that year he asked that his name not be placed in nomination. In 1985 Capps (restored in health) was again unanimously elected to membership on the board of directors of the National Federation of the Blind, a position which he still holds as the senior member of the board.

Born in 1928, Capps was educated at the South Carolina School for the Blind and later in public schools. Following his graduation from high school, he enrolled in Draughon's Business College in Columbia and after graduation joined the Colonial Life and Accident Insurance Company in Columbia as a claims examiner trainee. By the time of his retirement, he had risen to the position of staff manager of the claims department.

Capps first became interested in the organized blind movement in 1953 and the following year was elected president of the Columbia Chapter of the Aurora Club of the Blind (now the NFB of South Carolina), before assuming the presidency of the state organization. Under Capps's energetic leadership the NFB of South Carolina successfully backed thirty-six pieces of legislation affecting the blind citizens of the state, including establishment of a separate agency serving the blind. He edits the Palmetto Blind, the quarterly publication of the NFB of South Carolina. In 1960 he directed a campaign leading to construction of the NFB of South Carolina's $230,000 education and recreation center, which was expanded in 1970 and again in 1978. He now serves as a member of its board of trustees. He has been instrumental in establishing full-time daily operation of the Federation Center.

In December of 1972 the Colonial Life and Accident Insurance Company presented Capps with an award for "twenty-five years of efficient, faithful, and loyal service." In 1985 he retired after thirty-eight years of service to his company.

Through the years Don Capps has received many awards and honors. In 1965 he was honored as Handicapped Man of the Year by both the city of Columbia and the state of South Carolina. He has held numerous appointments on community and state boards and bodies and has been a leader in Rotary, church, and civic organizations. In 1977 he was elected vice chairman of the South Carolina Commission for the Blind Consumer Advisory Committee. Also in 1977, at the annual convention of the National Federation of the Blind, Don Capps received the highest honor bestowed by the organized blind movement, the Jacobus tenBroek Award. In 1981 he was appointed by the governor of South Carolina to membership on the board of commissioners of the South Carolina School for the Blind, where he served as vice chairman until 2005, at which time he retired from the board.

Other awards and honors Capps has received include the Outstanding Leader in Education Award in 1994 (given by the National School Public Relations Association). In 1999 he received the Colonel Sanders Colonel's Way Award. Also that year the CBS television affiliate in Columbia presented him the Jefferson Award for community leadership. In late 2000, in appreciation for his contributions to the school and to the lives of blind South Carolinians, the South Carolina School for the Deaf and the Blind dedicated to Capps its book celebrating its 150 years of service to the community.

In 2000 he also received the Order of the Palmetto, the highest honor conferred by the state of South Carolina. In 2001 the University of South Carolina awarded him an honorary doctorate in public service. Also in 2001 he was honored by the South Carolina General Assembly with the adoption of a concurrent resolution by the house of representatives and senate for his outstanding service to the blind.
In 2003 Betty and Don celebrated their fiftieth anniversary of service to the blind. Betty Capps has been an active Federationist as long as her husband has. The Cappses have two grown children, Craig and Beth, and three grandchildren. Although Don has retired from business, he continues to be as active and effective as ever in the Federation, exemplifying leadership and confidence. His ongoing dedication to the NFB provides inspiration and encouragement to his many colleagues and friends both inside and outside the Federation.

Sam Gleese
(Businessman and Ordained Minister)

In 1947 Vicksburg, Mississippi, was not an ideal place for a black child to be born with congenital cataracts. For years no one even noticed that little Sam Gleese had difficulty seeing, least of all Sam himself. He simply assumed that everyone else saw things with the hazy imprecision that he did.

One day when he was in the second grade, the teacher in the segregated school he attended sent a note home asking his mother to come to school for a conference. To the Gleese family's astonishment she told them that Sam had significant difficulty seeing to read and do board work. By the fourth grade the bouts of surgery had begun. Glasses (which Sam hated and forgot to wear most of the time) were prescribed. But none of this effort enabled young Sam to make out much of what his friends could see. Then in 1962, when he was fifteen, Gleese underwent surgery that gave him enough vision to show him by comparison just how little he had seen until that time.

He graduated from high school in 1966 and enrolled that fall at Jackson State College, where he majored in business administration. Looking back, Gleese is sure that he was legally blind throughout these years, but he never considered that he might have anything in common with the blind students he saw on campus. His struggle was always to see, and that made him sighted. Occasionally he was forced to deal with his difficulty in reading, particularly when a fellow student or teacher pointed out what he seemed to be missing, but for the most part he denied his situation and resented those who tried to make him face his problem.

After graduation in 1970, Gleese joined a management training program conducted by K-Mart. Everyone agreed that he was excellent on the floor and dealing with employees, but, though he did not realize it, he was extremely unreliable in doing paperwork. He consistently put information on the wrong line. His supervisor confronted him with the problem and told him he had vision trouble. He hotly denied it, but within the year he was out of the program.

During the following years Gleese applied repeatedly for jobs that would use his business training. When he supplied information about his medical history and his vision, would-be employers lost interest. Finally in late 1972 he got a job as assistant night stock clerk with a grocery chain. He had a wife to support--he and Vanessa Smith had married in August of 1970--and he needed whatever job he could find. Gradually he worked his way up to assistant frozen food manager in the chain, though it wasn't easy.

Then in 1979 his retinas detached, and within a few weeks late in the year he had become almost totally blind. For a month or two he was profoundly depressed. His wife, however, refused to give up on him or his situation. Gradually Gleese began to realize that she was right. He could still provide for his family and find meaningful work to do. He just had to master the alternative methods used by blind people.

Early in 1980 he enrolled in an adult training center in Jackson, where he learned Braille, cane travel, and daily living skills. He is still remembered in the program for the speed with which he completed his training. By the following summer he was working as a volunteer counselor at the center, and in the fall, with the help of the state vocational rehabilitation agency, he and his wife Vanessa were working in their own tax preparation business.

It was difficult, however, to maintain a sufficient income year round, and the Gleeses had a daughter, Nicole, born in 1976, to think about. In 1983 he decided to try taking a job making mops in the area sheltered workshop for the blind. He worked there for two years until a staff member pointed out that he could do better for himself in the state's Randolph-Sheppard vending program, which had finally been opened to African Americans in 1980-81.

In January of 1985 Gleese was assigned the worst vending stand in the state of Mississippi. Because of his degree in business administration, his phenomenal record in personal rehabilitation, and his work history in the grocery business, officials decided that he needed no training, but could learn the program in his own location. He spent two years in that facility, mastering the business and improving his techniques. Then during the next several years he had somewhat better locations. But in 1992 he bid on an excellent facility and then appealed the decision that awarded it to another vendor. Though the appeal decision, which eventually came down, did not give him personal redress, it did correct unfair practices that had plagued many vendors in Mississippi for years. In April of 1994 Sam, with the help of his wife Vanessa, became the manager of one of the largest food service operations in the state vending program.
Gleese has always been active in the Missionary Baptist Church. From 1973 to 1990 he taught the adult Sunday school class in his own church, and in 1980 he became a deacon. He was ordained to the ministry in November of 1992 and is now senior associate minister at the College Hill Baptist Church. He headed the scouting and the taping ministry. Currently he heads the members’ ministry and works with several other ministries.

Gleese first heard about the National Federation of the Blind in the early 1980s and attended his first national convention in 1983. He reports that from that moment he has been a committed Federationist. Vanessa has worked steadily beside him through the years as he has struggled to improve the lives of Mississippi's blind citizens. He became president of one of the state's local chapters in 1985, and the following year he was elected state president. He has continued to serve in that office ever since. Under his leadership the number of chapters in the Mississippi affiliate has nearly tripled.

In 1992 Gleese was first elected to the board of directors of the National Federation of the Blind, where he continues to serve with distinction. He has dedicated his life to educating the public, blind and sighted alike, about the abilities of blind people. According to him, too many people in Mississippi believe--as he did for many years--that blind people can do nothing and belong in rocking chairs and back rooms. Sam Gleese is making a difference everywhere he puts his hand.

In May of 1999 the mayor of Jackson, Mississippi, chose Sam to serve as chairperson of the newly formed Mayor's Advisory Committee on Disabilities. In September of that year he was appointed and confirmed by the city council of Jackson as the first blind person to serve on the Jackson-Hinds Library administrative board. This board oversees the services of public libraries in each of the seven towns in the Hinds County area.

In August of 2000 Gleese retired from the vending program for health reasons. He served one year in the Ameri-Corps volunteer program. The project with which he was associated encourages and enables people with disabilities to become fully involved in the community. The program is the only one of its kind in Mississippi and is staffed by disabled people. Sam explains that other Ameri-Corps programs are designed to assist in education--tutoring and the like--but this program allowed him to increase his outreach to blind people and the general disability community. It provided yet one more way of living his Federationism and ministering to the people he has been called to serve.

In August of 2001 Gleese accepted a position as an Independent Living Specialist with LIFE (Living Independence for Everyone) of central Mississippi. This position provided opportunities to work with adolescents with special health care needs between the ages of fourteen and twenty-one in Mississippi. The project, called Healthy Futures, is funded by a four-year grant through the Maternal and Child Health Bureau of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

In January of 2002 Gleese became the statewide project director for the Healthy Futures grant. This position enhances his opportunity to serve all adolescents with special health care needs, including blind people.

Sam Gleese makes it clear by word and action that each advancement he has made through the years has been in large measure the result of the hope and determination the NFB has instilled in its members.

Carl Jacobsen
(Businessman, Community Activist, and Teacher)

Carl Jacobsen was born on December 22, 1946, and raised in Brooklyn, New York, where his father had immigrated from Norway and his mother from Scotland. When he was sixteen, he lost his sight over a four-month period due to Lieber’s Syndrome. Although it would be some time before he found the NFB, Carl says he employed Federation philosophy in his approach to his blindness from the day he learned his diagnosis.

He transferred from Brooklyn Tech to Erasmus Hall High School because that's where the resource room was located. At Erasmus he met two adults who would have a positive influence on his life: his resource teacher, Sam Ellis, and his orientation and mobility instructor, Ed Townes. Carl tells the story of how this instructor, now a member of Congress, gave him a dry cleaning claim ticket and some cash and told him to pick up his suit. When Carl asked where the dry cleaner was located, Townes responded that, since he was such a wise guy, he could figure it out for himself. While at Erasmus, Carl also met Sally Rupp, one of the volunteer readers in the resource room, whom he would later marry. After graduation from high school Carl attended Concordia College in Moorhead, Minnesota, for two years while Sally attended nursing school in Brooklyn. They decided the separation was too stressful, however, so Carl left school to marry Sally.

Soon he and Sally began their family with son Bradley and daughter Christine, born in their first five years of marriage. Later, in 1991, they adopted their son Andrew from Korea. While the older children were growing up, Carl returned to school and finished his bachelor's degree at Hunter College in New York City. He also attended Union Seminary for three years but decided not to seek ordination.

Carl attended his first NFB national convention in 1989 and has missed only one since, the year his wife Sally was critically ill. In the fall of 1989 he was elected second vice president of the New York affiliate. In 1991 he was elected president of the New York City Chapter, an office he held until 2005. Later that year he was elected first vice president of the state affiliate and subsequently elected affiliate president in 1997, a position he continues to hold. Carl also served on the board of directors of the National Association of Blind Merchants until July of 2006.

Throughout his life Carl has pursued various careers, including factory management and business enterprise management. He says his favorite work is teaching. Though he has never taught school, in addition to training entrants into the Randolph-Sheppard Program, he works with blind children and teens on cane travel and other blindness skills as well as on attitudes about blindness. He also gives presentations to parents and educators of blind children on the truth about blindness the Federation way. Throughout the 1970s and 80s Carl was instrumental in establishing several programs for preschool children through local churches.

Carl was elected to the NFB board of directors in 2004. His daughter Christine has presented him with twin grandchildren, Jason and Caitlin. His wife Sally died in February 2002. Consistent with his and Sally's passion for education, in her memory Carl has endowed an NFB scholarship, which has been given at each national convention since 2002. On May 20, 2006, Carl married Mindy Fliegelman. Together they continue to work for the independence of blind people in New York and across the country.

Cathy Jackson
(Advocate, Braille Specialist, and Mother)

Mary Catherine Brothers (Cathy) was born on October 25, 1949, in Louisville, Kentucky, to Charles and Catherine Brothers. She is the third of nine children, four girls and five boys.

Cathy was born with congenital cataracts. In 1949 few resources were available to parents of blind children. The National Federation of the Blind was only nine years old, and the Kentucky affiliate was only two years old. The Brothers family had not heard of either. Her parents had never known any other blind people and couldn't imagine what the future might hold for their daughter. However, they decided that a common-sense approach was their best avenue. Luckily for Cathy, they never considered any approach to raising their blind daughter other than the methods they were using to raise their two older boys.

After several eye surgeries Cathy gained some usable vision in her right eye. At age five she was enrolled in a Roman Catholic school. Her parents chose this educational setting since the school offered a sight-saving class, where she would have access to large-print books and other materials that would make classroom work easier. Then in the fall of 1960 Cathy was enrolled at the Kentucky School for the Blind, where she remained until graduating from high school in 1967. Her parents and teachers decided that it would be more beneficial for her to attend school where she would have access to all of her textbooks in large print and, perhaps more important, where she could learn Braille.

This was Cathy's first exposure to totally blind peers and adults. Although she had been around other visually impaired students at her elementary school, the majority of them could see considerably better than she. She and her parents soon learned that blindness was simply a physical condition, certainly not one that would keep her from achieving whatever goals she set for herself. During these seven years while attending the Kentucky School for the Blind, she began to learn not to be ashamed of her blindness. She learned to advocate for herself and others. Being student council president during her junior and senior years launched her political career.

During the summer of 1967 Cathy attended the Chicago Lighthouse for the Blind. An ill-advised rehabilitation counselor thought this training would be the crowning touch to prepare her for college in the fall. That summer school Lighthouse class of 1967 was comprised of very bright, outgoing, normal young adults, who turned the tables on the Lighthouse staff and teachers. As Cathy remembers the experience, the adults were the ones to get the education when the students refused to be bound by the low expectations and negative attitudes of the staff. At this point in her life she still had not heard about the National Federation of the Blind but was already preaching and practicing NFB philosophy.

Upon graduation from high school Cathy attended Spalding University, formerly Catherine Spalding College in Louisville, Kentucky. She majored in psychology, minored in sociology, and took an active part in academic, student government, and social organizations. The blindness skills and attitudes she had learned at the Kentucky School for the Blind and even the negative attitudes she had been exposed to at the Lighthouse the summer before college were beginning to pay dividends. Cathy was growing into an adult with increasingly resolute convictions and positive attitudes.

In 1972 Cathy met Betty Niceley, the longtime leader of the Kentucky affiliate and for many years a member of the NFB board of directors. The rest is history. This friendship began her formal Federation education. Although Cathy was slow to join the Federation, Betty never gave up on recruiting her. In 1975 Cathy became a member of the Louisville Association of the Blind, the former name of the local NFB chapter. Through the years Cathy eventually served as secretary, vice president, and president of the National Federation of the Blind of Greater Louisville. She was also treasurer of the National Association to Promote the Use of Braille of Kentucky. In the Kentucky affiliate she has served as board member, treasurer, first vice president, and now president. At the 2002 annual convention of the National Federation of the Blind held in Louisville, she was elected to the board of directors of the National Federation of the Blind.
Cathy has held a variety of jobs through the years. During college she was employed at the Kentucky Industries for the Blind (now New Vision Enterprises for the Blind) to do seasonal contract work. For a short time after college Cathy worked for the state of Kentucky as a social worker in the Food Stamp Office. After staying home to raise her daughter, Cathy has worked successively as the program coordinator for the National Federation of the Blind of Kentucky Braille Service Center, a clerical support staff member in a law office, and the Braille clerk for the Jefferson County school system. But her favorite job of all was stay-at-home mom to her daughter Dana Nicole. She volunteered as a classroom aide, did substitute teaching, and worked as a secretary in the principal's office. She served as president of the school Parent Teacher Association, secretary of the athletic club, and member of the parish council. In addition she coached both the peewee basketball team and the cheerleading squad.

Cathy has received a number of awards for academic and athletic achievement, but the two awards she cherishes most are the Susan B. Rarick and Harold L. Reagan awards presented to her by the NFB of Kentucky. Cathy comments that her roots and commitment to the NFB go deep and that the past twenty-seven years are just the beginning.

Anil Lewis
(Counselor, Advocate, and Father

Anil Lewis was born in 1964 in Atlanta, Georgia. He is the third of four children. Both his older brother and older sister became legally blind at an early age from retinitis pigmentosa. Lewis was originally labeled educably mentally retarded but eventually became the first member of his family to attend a four-year college. He has excelled academically, received many awards, participated as a leader in many extracurricular activities, and received several college scholarships. Although he was finally diagnosed at age nine with retinitis pigmentosa, his vision was fairly unaffected until age twenty-five.

As a sighted man he fairly easily found respectable employment with wages high above the minimum wage. Then in 1989, while pursuing his bachelor’s of business administration in computer information systems at Georgia State University (GSU), he became blind from retinitis pigmentosa. "All of a sudden doors that had been open to me slammed shut." At that point, although he had always considered himself socially aware, he became personally acquainted with actual social injustice and discrimination. "I am ashamed that only personal experience brought this awakening and decision to take action. But I am proud that I did take action and remain committed today to making a difference in the lives of others."

Lewis received blindness skills training while completing his course requirements for his degree at GSU. He quickly learned the alternative skills of blindness, including Braille, activities of daily living, assistive technology, and use of the white cane. He capitalized on them to graduate from Georgia State in 1993. "It was a struggle to regain the life that blindness had appeared to take from me. Almost everyone who had once respected me now pitied me, but I was determined not to be redefined by my blindness." Armed with these new skills and this new determination, he quickly became committed to ensuring that others in similar situations could get appropriate training and unlimited opportunities.

Lewis got a job as a Braille and assistive technology instructor. Within a year he was given the greater responsibility of job development/placement specialist, helping clients develop employment skills and get jobs. "I had had no experience helping anyone other than myself get a job. I certainly did not have expertise in job placement for blind people." It was during this time that he first became aware of the National Federation of the Blind. A friend referred him to the NFB when he had questions about Social Security work incentives and needed information about tools and strategies to help blind people obtain employment. As a result he attended his first NFB convention in Chicago, Illinois, in 1995 and became aware of the empowering philosophy and tremendous resource of the National Federation of the Blind. The technical assistance materials produced by the NFB’s Job Opportunities for the Blind (JOB) program and the NFB’s Social Security and technical assistance information provided resources enabling him to motivate, educate, and encourage other blind people to achieve successful gainful employment. "My success as a job placement specialist was a direct result of my ability to infuse NFB philosophy into the clients I worked with."

Lewis went on to develop and manage a job placement program for people with disabilities as the manager of the Disability Employment Initiative with Randstad Staffing, one of the largest employment staffing companies in the world, during the Atlanta Olympic and Para-Olympic Games in 1996. From then until early 2006 he was employed by the law offices of Martin and Jones as the Georgia Client Assistance Program (CAP) counselor/advocate, representing people with disabilities every day. He is currently a disability consultant working with companies in Georgia.

He became president of the Atlanta Metropolitan Chapter of the NFB of Georgia in 2000 and was elected president of the NFB of Georgia in 2002. In that year he also received the Kenneth Jernigan Memorial Scholarship, the NFB’s most prestigious award presented to a blind student, which he used to obtain his master’s degree in public administration with emphasis in policy analysis and program evaluation from GSU in 2003. That year he was also elected as a member of the National Federation of the Blind board of directors. He received an Outstanding Alumnus award from GSU and was also a 2003 GSU Torch Bearer of Peace Award recipient. In 2006 Lewis was named alumnus of the year by Leadership Dekalb, a community leadership development organization in Dekalb County, Georgia.
Lewis has dedicated his leadership skills to the development and growth of disability rights organizations that promote independence and improved quality of life. He was appointed by the governor as a board member and is the current president of the Statewide Independent Living Council (SILC) of Georgia, an organization promoting independent living for those with severe disabilities. He also serves as chairman of the board of directors of the Disability Law and Policy Center (DLPC) of Georgia, which uses a variety of methods to influence and enforce disability policy. All of these organizations recognize that people with disabilities are integral, necessary members of society and reflect the world’s normal diversity. Further, each works to ensure that the policies and programs developed for people with disabilities are created and implemented by people with disabilities. By helping to develop and strengthen such institutions to serve as a cornerstone in protecting the rights of people with disabilities, he hopes to secure the commitment and support of others. He also hopes to reduce the barriers disabled people face by encouraging the implementation of public policy securing the rights and promoting the responsible participation of people with disabilities as productive citizens.

Lewis volunteers as a teacher and mentor for blind kids, working with promising blind students who, because of limited resources and lack of trained professionals to teach them, are inappropriately encouraged to pursue special education diplomas. He wants blind students to set higher goals for themselves and to receive the training and tools they need to acquire the skills to reach their full potential.

Speaking of his personal life, Anil Lewis says that his proudest accomplishment is his bright, ambitious son Amari, born in 1997. Balancing his many civic responsibilities with his personal life as a father is undoubtedly his greatest challenge. His greatest success, he thinks, has been overcoming the temptation to subside into becoming an unmotivated, self-pitying person with a disability. He thinks his greatest contribution so far has been to encourage other people with disabilities to believe in themselves and to understand that they can make a difference.

Lewis says that lack of awareness of individuals with traits outside society’s accepted norms promotes extreme ignorance, which in turn results in unjustified fear, negative stereotypes, and discrimination. In an effort to combat that ignorance, he aggressively recruits, refers, and supports other like-minded people to become active in the National Federation of the Blind and other organizations in the disability rights movement. He hopes to promote social change by fostering the active participation of more people with disabilities in every facet of society, thereby replacing ignorance with understanding, fear with awareness, and negative stereotypes with mutual understanding. In the process he believes that we will eliminate discrimination.

"With a working knowledge of most disability law and policy and extended experience in advocating for the rights of others, I am committed to improving the quality of life for all people with disabilities by working to remove the barriers of ignorance while creating equal opportunities for all. My personal mission is simple: I want to make a difference in the lives of others."

Chris McKenzie
(Rehabilitation Teacher, Counselor, and Advocate)

Growing up in Little Rock, Arkansas, Chris McKenzie was the only child of young parents who knew little about blindness. McKenzie was born with cataracts, and after many surgeries before the age of one she developed glaucoma, which left her with light and color perception, but not enough vision to read print, no matter how large. She later lost all her vision.

Fortunately for her a doctor told her parents that they could mold her into a dependent or an independent adult--whichever they chose. McKenzie began kindergarten as a day student at the Arkansas School for the Blind in the fall of 1963. Though she took one class in a local high school, her primary elementary and secondary education was at the school for the blind, from which she graduated in 1976.

After attending Harding College in Searcy, Arkansas, where she received a bachelor's in psychology, McKenzie proceeded to the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, where she received a master's in counselor education. During summers, school holidays, and any other day she could get away, McKenzie worked in the mailroom at the Arkansas Farm Bureau. "It was a wonderful summer job," McKenzie says. "It helped me to maintain good grades in college and graduate school--mailroom work is hard and tedious!"

Her first professional job was working for the Pulaski County Municipal Court as a counselor in a new, grant-funded first-offenders' program under the direction of Judge David Hale. Unfortunately, when the grant was not renewed, McKenzie was forced to look for work once more. She transferred to the Arkansas Division of Services for the Blind (DSB) in Fort Smith as an independent living counselor--a position now known as a rehabilitation teacher. During the next eleven years McKenzie worked with blind children and their families and blind adults. In 1994 she moved back to Little Rock, continuing to work for DSB. During the next several years McKenzie did a combination of rehabilitation teaching and vocational counseling.

In May of 1996 McKenzie discovered the National Federation of the Blind as a result of having attended one of the BNATT (Braille Nonvisual Access Techonology Training) workshops at the National Center for the Blind in Baltimore. While there, she spent much of her off time with blind people who opened McKenzie's eyes to the amazing history, positive philosophy, and family-like support system of the organization. McKenzie left Baltimore a committed Federationist and two months later became a chapter officer back home in Arkansas. Much to her amazement and sometimes exasperation, she was elected the Arkansas affiliate president in October 1996.

McKenzie had the privilege of attending the Louisiana Center for the Blind in Ruston for four months in 1997, observing a model program in which blind staff members teach blind students and achieve extraordinary results. She describes the experience as "The most memorable and helpful thing for me to do. It also helped to cement my Federation philosophy."

Chris McKenzie is always in search of learning more and becoming better at what she does. She recently completed a seven class, two-year rehabilitation training program for leadership development known as CLICK (Community Leadership Institute for Change Knowledge) and is now enrolled in another master's program, rehabilitation teaching, at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. There's no telling what Chris McKenzie might do after that, but one thing is certain: she will be doing it as a Federationist.

Alpidio Rolón
(Veteran and Advocate)

The needs of the blind of Puerto Rico are legion. With the support of the membership of the National Federation of the Blind of Puerto Rico, this board member has made it his personal mission to lead his affiliate to work for improved and modernized opportunities for education, employment, and daily life for all blind people in this somewhat isolated part of the United States. Now on the national board, he is expanding his work to include improved opportunities for all blind people nationwide.

Alpidio Rolón, the only child of Marcela García and Alpidio Rolón, was born on June 20, 1949, in New York City. Seven years later his family moved back to Puerto Rico, where he has lived since 1956. He volunteered for service in the Army in July 1969, completed basic and advanced infantry training, then was sent to Vietnam in January of 1970. A rifle-propelled grenade that blew up in front of him blinded him on April 7, 1970. Three weeks later young Rolón was sent to Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, D.C., where he learned basic orientation and mobility skills and was treated for perforated eardrums caused by the exploding grenade. He later spent six months at the Central Blind Rehabilitation Center of the Hines Veterans Administration Hospital in Chicago. There he learned the blindness skills that would permit him to live independently.

Rolón graduated magna cum laude from the University of Puerto Rico in 1976, obtaining a bachelor’s degree in liberal arts with an Hispanic Studies major. Continuing his interest in Hispanic studies at the master’s level, he completed both courses and comprehensive test requirements. At the University of Puerto Rico be began advocating for the rights of blind people. Although he had belonged to other blind consumer organizations, he says that it wasn’t until 1991—when he became part of the NFB of Puerto Rico organizing committee—that he began to believe that he could really do something worthwhile to help the blind, that joining the National Federation of the Blind was like coming home. Rolón was first elected as treasurer of the NFB of Puerto Rico in 1992 and has served as its president since 1996. He was elected to the board of directors of the National Federation of the Blind in July of 2006.

Rolón has combined his love of Spanish and his commitment to the National Federation of the Blind by translating NFB materials into Spanish. He was first motivated to do so when he heard Dr. Kenneth Jernigan’s speech "On the Nature of Independence" at the NFB national convention in 1993, in Dallas, Texas. He has since translated other speeches and Braille Monitor articles, served as a real-time translator of banquet speeches at national conventions, and edited inspirational personal stories of the kind that appear in the NFB Kernel Books, written by members of the National Federation of the Blind of Puerto Rico.

Alpidio Rolón is the president of the Society of Friends of the Regional Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped of Puerto Rico. In that capacity he has guided the Society into producing Braille and recorded books in Spanish for blind children in Puerto Rico. To further his goal of improving educational opportunities for blind children, he serves as secretary of the Special Education Advisory Panel for the Puerto Rico Department of Education.

Joseph Ruffalo, Jr.
(Massage Therapist, Community Leader, and Activist)

Born July 6, 1949, in Montclair and raised in Bloomfield, New Jersey, Joseph Ruffalo, Jr., had already graduated from Bloomfield High School, attended Montclair State College, and served America in Vietnam, where he earned a Bronze Star, before he learned in 1976 that retinitis pigmentosa would slowly claim his vision. For six years he continued his work as a manager in a Thom McAn shoe store, but by 1983 he began looking for guidance about how to achieve greater proficiency and control over his life as a blind adult.

The staff at the Joseph Kohn Rehabilitation Center (JKRC), then located in Newark, told him he should not learn to use a cane, read Braille, or master any adaptive devices because he still had enough vision to do without them. Though eager to obtain the necessary skills, at the time Joe believed he had no recourse but to adhere to the advice of the only professionals he knew. Not until 1986 did he learn to use a cane, and he accomplished that by teaching himself. While at JKRC, Joe discovered a talent for baking, which led to a successful nine-year career as the owner of a pastry business.

In 1988 Joe tentatively attended his first NFB chapter meeting in Newark. He reports that after ten minutes he knew that his life was about to change dramatically. Realizing that the NFB was a place of fraternity and empowerment, empathy and accomplishment, Joe says, “I saw blind people doing things I wanted to do. They were holding jobs, volunteering, and achieving in every pursuit.” This was the beginning of Joe's own growth and achievement. In 1990 he became second vice president of the New Jersey affiliate; two years later he was first vice president; and by 1993 he was president of the NFB of New Jersey, a position he maintains to this day. “It is a tremendous honor and responsibility to promote positive attitudes about blindness and the abilities of blind people,” Joe comments.

But Joe's community involvement has not been limited to the National Federation of the Blind. He has been a leader in the Lions Club for over eighteen years, serving as president for three. He has also held positions as zone/regent chair and serves on the District 16-E cabinet. In the Knights of Columbus Joe has held the positions of guard, warden, and deputy grand knight, and while in the Cub Scouts of America he has been both a den leader and cubmaster. As past president of the Special Education Parent and Professional Organization and past chairman of the board of trustees of the New Jersey Commission for the Blind and Visually Impaired, he has further worked to assure the full integration of people with disabilities into society.

Joe attended the Therapeutic Massage Center to obtain certification in massage therapy and from 1998 to 2000 provided massage for staff, patients, and visitors at Clara Maass Medical Center in Belleville, before moving his practice to a private office. He has served as a consultant to the Somerset School of Massage, making recommendations to staff and students and answering questions about training methods for blind students.

Joe also works to smooth others' transitions from dependence to independence as a leader in two programs sponsored by the New Jersey Commission for the Blind and Visually Impaired. He is employed by the First Occupational Center of New Jersey as a program specialist in the Senior Community Independent Living Services (SCILS) program, which identifies people over age fifty-five in Essex and Ocean counties who have experienced vision loss, with the goal of teaching independence skills so that these seniors can remain active in the community and independent in their homes. As state program director and northern region coordinator of the Leadership, Education, Advocacy, and Determination (LEAD) program, administered in partnership with Heightened Independence and Progress, Joe provides mentoring activities for blind teenagers and their families.

Joe’s many contributions to the community were recognized in November 2000 when he was honored with the Partnership for Progress Award at the New Jersey Commission's Believe and Achieve ninetieth Anniversary celebration. In July 2001 his leadership in the blindness community was again acknowledged when he was elected to the board of directors of the National Federation of the Blind. In October of 2002 the State of New Jersey honored Joe by presenting him with the New Jersey Vietnam Service Medal.

Joe has always been encouraged and supported by his wife of twenty-eight years, Judy, and his two sons, Joseph and James. In his spare time Joe likes sports of all kinds, especially baseball and basketball, and enjoys hosting Thru Our Eyes, an Internet radio program (www.thruoureyes.org) that highlights blindness issues, discusses technology, and promotes positive attitudes about blindness.

Joe’s life and work express his commitment to the blind and their struggle for equality in society. His achievements stand as an example for others, like those of the Federationists who deeply impressed him at his first chapter meeting. He achieves and grows, facing every challenge with energy, enthusiasm, and common sense. In so doing, he exemplifies his belief that “one of the most important things for members of the blind community to do is to teach the public that blindness is only a characteristic. With the proper training, skills, attitude, and techniques, blindness can be reduced to a physical nuisance.”

Dan Wenzel
(Educator, Administrator, and Father)

Dan Wenzel, son of Dan and Rolane Wenzel, was born on March 2, 1970. Educated in public schools, Dan graduated from Alimita High School in Lakewood, Colorado. He earned his BS degree in history education from the University of Northern Colorado (UNC) in Greeley. He anticipates enrolling in a master’s program in education administration.

During college Dan worked in telemarketing and was involved in the management of the UNC Alumni Association. The trajectory of his career, though, was set with his hiring in the 1992 summer program of the Colorado Center for the Blind (CCB). Dan says:

My job as a summer counselor at the CCB changed the course of my career. Prior to accepting this position, I had given little thought to my blindness or the needs of our community. I realized that summer that I wanted to work with and for blind people. Because of my experience at the CCB I joined the National Federation of the Blind. I came to understand that through advocacy and training blind people could play a role in changing their own lives and those of other blind people. I discovered that the empowering philosophy of the Federation was awesome. I was converted.

After graduation Dan worked briefly as a teacher in the Aurora, Colorado, public schools. He worked during successive summers as director of the middle and high school programs for the CCB. He was hired full-time to teach orientation and mobility and to direct the center’s emerging youth programs in February 1995. Advancing in his career, he was promoted to assistant director of the CCB in 1999. He served in this capacity until February 2001.

Wanting to broaden his professional experience and to live closer to his spouse’s family, Dan accepted a position as regional support specialist with the Wisconsin Center for the Blind and Visually Impaired (WCBVI). In September 2003 he laterally transferred to the position of transition specialist, where he returned to his passion for helping teenage youth move from school to work or higher education. Drawing upon his previous experience, he has built and directed the WCBVI Employment Skills Experience Program from 2002 through 2006, a model summer job-training program for blind youth living in the Badger State. Dan’s visionary talents as a leader and program administrator were recognized in August 2006 when he was offered and accepted the position of director of the WCBVI, the Wisconsin governmental entity that houses the Wisconsin School for the Visually Handicapped and other outreach and social services to blind youth living in the state.

Dan is deeply committed to the NFB. While resident in Colorado, he served on the affiliate’s board of directors. In recognition of his commitment to the Federation, he was the first recipient of the Ray McGeorge Award, bestowed by the Colorado Association of Blind Students. He served as president of the National Federation of the Blind of Wisconsin from 2003 until August 2006, when he resigned in order to achieve a better balance between work and family obligations. He was elected to the NFB’s national board in July 2006 in Dallas, Texas.

Dan identifies sports and music as personal pleasures. He served as head coach of the WCBVI goalball team, leading his team to a 2005 state championship. In 2002 he demonstrated his commitment to athletics and sports in general through his service as vice president of the Wisconsin Association of Blind Athletes. A holdover from his years of service at the CCB is his love of rock climbing. He is also a blues fan, holding a membership in the Crossroads Blues Society.

Dan is married to Jennifer Lehman Wenzel, a Federation leader in her own right. She is president of the Rock County chapter of the National Federation of the Blind of Wisconsin. They have three children: Roland (born in 1999), Stephen (born in 2001), and Tanner (born in 2004).

Abundantly successful in his personal, professional, and Federation roles, Dan offers some commonsense advice about our responsibilities as blind people in society, and he acknowledges those who have supported him along the way. He says: “One of the most important things we can do is to be positive blind role models for everybody. The Federation is a rich resource for person-to-person mentoring. Before my involvement with the NFB I was truly unaware of the abilities of blind people. The NFB showed me that blind people could be successful in every walk of life. I will always be personally grateful to my Federation mentors. They have brought me along and have given me hope. I now try to do the same for others.”


In the Spotlight: Affiliate Action

Shaping Federal Legislation

The Washington Seminar is just around the corner, a new Congress is in place, and the political situation is especially fluid at the moment. This means that it is particularly important for members of the National Federation of the Blind to make our views known in Washington effectively and responsibly. The following information and reminders are drawn from the NFB’s TOPS handbook:

NFB leaders often call upon us to help shape legislation on the federal level. The following information should be of help to you as you navigate the political process.

Contacting Members of Congress

The director of governmental affairs often sends legislative emails to Federationists requesting that we call the offices of our members of Congress. Some people feel uncomfortable making calls to senators and representatives. Practice is the only way to overcome this fear. The email alerts provide instructions about what our national office wants members to do. If you need to build your courage, call Jim McCarthy or Jesse Hartle at our national office or a member of your affiliate to discuss the topic and develop your strategy.
Hill staffers are not looking for lengthy explanations, and they generally will not understand them if they are offered. They want to know what you want in as few words as possible. They will ask you questions if they want greater detail. If you are making a call to register your views on an issue, try to express them in one sentence: “Preserve the head of the Rehabilitation Services Administration at the commissioner level.” "Vote against H.R. (or S.) bill number." The person you will speak with is simply counting votes—how many for and how many against.

When communicating with the U.S. Senate and House, consider the following:

Locating Contact Information

Legislative Advice from the Hill
by Stacy Cervenka

Stacy Cervenka has been an intern in Senator Sam Brownback’s office. She was recently promoted to legislative correspondent.

As a legislative correspondent for a U.S. senator I’ve had a chance to meet with many groups of constituents who have come to Washington to educate us on the issues that affect people in their vocation, region of the country, or interest group. In doing so, I’ve come to understand that a group can do several small things to increase its impact on our office as a whole and on me as an individual staffer.

As you prepare to visit your senators and representatives during Washington Seminar, please keep the following eight tips in mind. (I want to point out that some of these suggestions seem pretty obvious, especially to old pros. However, I would not have put them on this list if I had not seen these rules of etiquette breached by at least one group visiting our office.)

1. Make an appointment.
It is absolutely critical that you make an appointment to meet with a staff member. Dropping fact sheets off with someone in the front office is a waste of time and energy. Your fact sheets will inevitably get lost in the shuffle or more likely be tossed out.

2. Be sure to meet with the appropriate staffer.
Your first object is to meet with the member in person, but he or she will almost always be accompanied by at least one staffer. Unfortunately, when you tell the senator’s scheduler that you are with the National Federation of the Blind, he or she may automatically schedule you to meet with a healthcare staffer. If your group is talking about Medicare, this might be appropriate. However, if you are going to be discussing the Randolph-Sheppard Act, you need to speak with the labor L.A. (legislative assistant). If you are advocating for delivery of Braille textbooks on time for blind children, you want to speak with the education L.A. If you meet with the healthcare L.A. and talk about voting access, he or she will likely pass your fact sheets on to the voting rights staffer after the meeting, but you’ve just lost all the benefits of meeting with that staffer in person, so you might as well have simply mailed the fact sheets in. Therefore consider calling Jim McCarthy or Jesse Hartle at the National Center before you make your appointments so that you can tell the scheduler what issues you’ll be discussing.

As a side note, when speaking with the senator’s scheduler, I would strongly recommend using the term “labor L.A.,” “education L.A.,” or “telecommunications L.A.,” and so on, since this is the lingo we use on the Hill, and it will make you sound like an old pro at scheduling appointments and will give you a better shot at actually meeting with the L.A. On the other hand, if you ask to speak with the “education person” or the “technology guy,” you’ll probably get scheduled to meet with the L.C. (legislative correspondent) which is not nearly as effective. If you want to be really slick, call the office first and ask the person who answers the phone to give you the name of the education L.A., for example. Then ask to speak with the scheduler and request an appointment with the education L.A. by name.
If the issues we are discussing are spread among several L.A.’s, decide which is the most important or which you stand the best chance of getting support on or perhaps which issue falls under the committee responsibility of the member. Then try for a meeting with that L.A. and collect the cards of the staffers with whom you will have to take up the secondary issues. All this is very much simpler to manage if your actual meeting is with the senator or representative. He or she will tell the aide what to do about the various issues, and you can get the names and contact information of any other staffers from the member for later follow-up.

3. Look your best.
When you walk into a congressional office, the first thing most sighted staff members will notice is your appearance. Therefore men should plan to wear suits and ties, and women should dress in skirted suits or pantsuits. If you do not own a suit, dressy slacks or a skirt with a business shirt or blouse and sweater or blazer will suffice. Be sure to check beforehand that your clothing is free of stains, and take special care to see that your hair is neatly combed, your teeth are brushed, and you remembered to use deodorant. (I have one very painful memory of sitting in a meeting with a group of constituents who were wearing dirty T-shirts and old jeans and smelled terrible. Needless to say, neither the other staff member nor I went into the meeting with very high expectations.)

4. Begin the meeting on the right foot.
Senators, congressmen, and their staffs tend to characterize the various groups they see as either “friendly” or “hostile.” The chances are that they have never heard of the National Federation of the Blind and are therefore uncertain about what to expect. They may also have had some negative experiences with other blindness or disability groups that have come across as hostile or whiny. Naturally we want to be considered friendly by all congressional offices. Therefore I strongly suggest that you start the meeting with a compliment about something the congressman or senator has done for blind people in the past. Most members of Congress have done at least one thing during their careers that has benefited the blind community. Compliment him or her on signing on to a bill a year ago, even if it was a bill that passed with unanimous consent and wasn’t controversial at all. This will immediately put members or staffers at ease, and they will realize that your group is friendly and there to educate them respectfully.

5. Always remain polite and respectful.
Occasionally a member of Congress or a staffer says something like, “I really want to help your group out, but with the budget as tight as it is, I just don’t see how we can afford to fund that” or “I’m not sure whether or not I’m going to be able to get on board with this, because I hear that there are several other groups that don’t support this legislation.” Whatever you do, resist the temptation to start shouting that the congressman doesn’t support blind people. If anything, the member or staffer is being honest about his or her initial thoughts. (You should be grateful that such folks aren’t simply saying what you want to hear to make you happy so that you’ll go away sooner.) From the research you have done beforehand, you should have anticipated some of these questions and come up with answers that demonstrate that the bill will actually save taxpayers money in the long run or that most constituents would indeed agree with your bill if they understood all the facts.

6. Stay on issue.
Banish certain statements from your conversation with any senator or congressman: “Well we might have the money to do this if you didn’t support tax cuts for the wealthy or the war in Iraq!” “Well, if you weren’t so busy wasting our tax dollars on welfare for those who haven’t worked a day in their lives or shelling out all this money for Medicare, maybe we would have the money to fund education properly!” Believe it or not, every staffer has been in a meeting with someone who has said something like this, and it is the most unwise thing you could possibly do. First of all, this is a surefire way to get the staffer to tune you out and write your group off as hostile.

Second, as a nonprofit, the NFB is a bipartisan organization. Blind men and women are a cross section of American society, and we espouse a wide variety of political and personal beliefs. The only characteristics we have in common are our blindness and our commitment to improving the lives of all blind people. The NFB advocates for no policies except those that deal strictly with blindness. Therefore, if you wish to advocate for tax reform, saving the whales, privatization of Social Security, or an end to the war, become active with a group that specifically focuses on your non-blindness-related concerns.

7. Prepare one story and one factoid for each item on your agenda.
Obviously congressional staffers are as diverse as the population in general. Some may be analytical and objective, and others are more emotional. Therefore have one good, strong fact or figure for each agenda item and one good personal story. You do not want to bombard the staffer with endless facts and figures, which can be very confusing. On the other hand, this is a legislative meeting, not group therapy. If your group is talking about textbooks on time for blind children and everyone in the room has a horror story of getting their textbooks late, choose beforehand which story is the most powerful and illustrative of the problem. With one factoid and one figure for each item, you can’t go wrong.

8. Follow up.
Finally, be sure to follow up with the appropriate staffer after the meeting. Get his or her card, and send a thank-you email, perhaps enclosing additional information.

I can’t promise that you will always persuade your members of Congress of your position, but, if you follow these suggestions, you will be effective and will be taken seriously as a participant in the democratic process. Good luck at the Washington Seminar and throughout the year as you forge relationships with your members of Congress.


To Live Is to Give—My Experience in the Middle East

by Rebekah Jakeman

From the Editor: Rebekah Jakeman has appeared before in these pages. She is a young wife and mother who lives in Utah, where her husband is in law school. This summer she had another adventure. Here is her account of it:

Even when my husband came home from law school one day and said, “I applied for a job in Jordan today,” I never really expected to find myself three months later living in an apartment surrounded by fields and sheep in the Middle East. But there I was with my family living in the predominantly Christian town of Hasan, just an hour north of Amman, Jordan’s capital.

My husband wanted to combine his two loves—law and Arabic—in a summer law internship abroad. He obtained a position working for an Arab firm, assisting in an international arbitration case. For him it meant long hours of research and writing. For me it meant living in a country I had never been to, hearing a language I didn’t speak, and being surrounded by people I had never met. It was a lesson in adapting, to say the least.

We arrived in Amman in the middle of the night and rode to our hotel in a bus blaring the latest Arab pop music. It wasn’t exactly the Marriott, but the low beds, unique bathroom facilities, and running water were enough to satisfy us. My welcome to Jordan came as I awoke to the Muslims’ call to prayer echoing over the loud speakers all over the city and then eating a breakfast of flatbread smothered in spreadable cheese.

Later that day we ventured out to find some sort of grocery store where we could buy food. As soon as I heard the roar of speeding traffic and felt the rough, uneven sidewalks, I tried to recall the advice of my cane travel instructor back home. I had asked Nick Schmittroth, one of Utah’s orientation and mobility instructors, if he had any advice for me before I went abroad. He had said, “Remember your travel skills and that most of the traffic rules won’t apply abroad. Have fun.” Now that I was here, I knew exactly what he meant. There were few or no stoplights or stop signs, and for that matter there were even fewer traffic rules. It was every driver or, in my case, pedestrian for herself. Whereas often in America assertive street crossings are the exception to the rule, in Jordan they were basically the only option.

My husband and I began by using a stroller in which we could push or pull our children down the busy streets, but when we realized that this was about as effective as swimming through mud, we opted for carrying the children or holding their hands.

I quickly discovered that I had to do without many things we take for granted in America. It was like learning blindness techniques; I had to figure out other ways of doing things since many commodities were just not available. I had to learn how to adapt. There were no Whirlpool washers and dryers, so we often had to wash and rinse our clothes in the bathtub and hang them out in the arid Jordan heat to dry. The whole country has a major shortage of water, so I learned to turn off the water much of the time that I was showering, washing dishes, or brushing my teeth. Few people owned cars, so we took taxis or walked. Because of the lack of sanitation, we had to bleach fruits, vegetables, and eggs before we ate them. Any time I talked to anyone, I had to have someone translate for me, or if they did know a little English, I had to decipher their words through their thick accents.

Although we had to do without many things, there were many advantages to the Arab culture. One was the standard of hospitality and generosity. Our neighbors invited us over for hummus, a glass of juice, or fresh fruit from the tree whenever they saw us walking in or out of the apartment building. They hardly even knew us, but they were anxious to befriend us.

When my stomach finally stopped doing flips at the knowledge that I would be spending part of the summer in the Middle East, I set a personal goal to find blind Jordanians, befriend them, and share the blessings of NFB philosophy. With this in mind you can imagine my great surprise in discovering that our welcoming neighbors had a blind daughter. Randa Sahanewneh, a friendly, twenty-one-year-old girl, graduated from the local university with the equivalent of a bachelor’s degree in Arabic during the months I was there.

When I imagined meeting the blind of Jordan, I expected to find homeless or otherwise impoverished individuals who lacked direction and know-how. But just as the sighted members of the American public are often ignorant of the truth about blindness, I discovered that I had a lot to learn about the Middle East, and Randa was a part of that.

She was spunky, had a go-get-’em personality, and was content with her life. I rarely found her sitting around at home. She was either off playing the organ for the local Baptist church, tutoring students in Arabic, teaching at a local private school, or studying at the university. I discovered that I had to set appointments with her if I was ever to get to know her better. Until that point I had only heard Arabic spoken, and as a visual learner I was anxious to see something written down. So I asked Randa to tutor me in Arabic Braille. Using my notetaker, Randa would type different letters and words, and we would practice pronouncing them together. I thought it was interesting that letters in the Arabic Braille alphabet are actually words in the English Braille code. I would laugh as I tried to get my throat to make the Arabic sounds. I would try to practice the few phrases and words I knew as I spoke with taxi drivers, neighbors, and friends. One of my favorite phrases was “Ilhamdu lillah,” which means “Praise to God.” It is used in response to the question, “How are you?” and expresses utter happiness at being alive. This was something I found in Randa; she was happy to be alive and wanted to make the most of her life.

Randa had become blind because of a rare skin disease her mother was exposed to during her pregnancy. Before Randa was a year old, her parents found out about an organization in Switzerland that helped disabled infants and children. Wanting their daughter to regain her sight, they permitted a Swiss family to adopt her. This family then helped fund a series of operations to improve Randa’s vision. But in the end they discovered that there was no cure for Randa and that her blindness was permanent. The Swiss family had grown so attached to her that they wanted to keep her, but her parents felt it would be best if they took her back. A family friend advised Randa’s mother that she raise Randa like any of her other children and not treat her differently.

Randa was enrolled in Amman’s school for the blind when she was six years old. She then returned to her hometown for middle school and high school. Since blind people do not have many career options in Jordan—just telephone operator or schoolteacher—Randa was limited. She chose a career in education and started student teaching after her sophomore year. She told me that, when she begins teaching full-time, she will teach Braille, music, and religious studies to blind and sighted students.

When I asked Randa about herself and her blindness, she said, “I don’t like to sit.” Her sister seconded that by saying that she has a strong personality and likes to keep busy. As I got to know her better, I found Randa had what I consider an NFB-heart. She wanted the best out of life and to contribute to society. More often than not I found her helping others. Even though I did my best to share my knowledge and skills of blindness with Randa and her family, I was constantly learning from her example what it means really to live as a blind person.

It’s not enough just to receive; we need to give back. As Americans and as members of the NFB, we have been given many privileges and opportunities. This means, as Randa commented, that we shouldn’t “like to sit.” We need to be busy—busy sharing with others what we have learned. Randa showed me that as she took time to teach me Arabic Braille. I felt inspired to follow her example. When my family and I flew home to Utah by way of Vienna, Austria, I was fortunate to meet a Russian girl who was blind. In the few moments we had, I shared with her what I could about the NFB and the benefits of the long white cane.

Another opportunity to share presented itself a few weeks later when I met a blind Chinese woman. She is here in America learning English and has just recently lost her vision. I immediately gave her my phone number, and we arranged to meet again. Since then she has come to my home several times, and I have tutored her on how to use JAWS with Word and on the Internet. My hope is that a better knowledge of JAWS will help her learn English faster. In this small way I’m just passing along what many others have given to me. The skills we learn as blind people don’t just open doors of opportunities for us; they open doors for all those we interact with. NFB philosophy rings true because it is compatible with basic human behavior. We share what we learn, not just to better our own lives, but to better the lives of others.

Whenever I tell people that I was in the Middle East this summer, they seem somewhat horrified. They mention that they are glad that I’m home safe and alive. What they don’t know is that it took my going halfway around the world and interacting with people like Randa to be reminded as a blind person what it really means to be alive. Ilhamdu lillah.


America Online: An Internet Service That the Blind Can Use

by Curtis Chong

From the Editor: Curtis Chong is president of the National Federation of the Blind in Computer Science. Here is his latest report on the programs and activities of America Online (AOL):


In an article entitled "America Online: Is It Accessible Now?" which appeared in the May 2003 edition of the Braille Monitor, I mentioned that America Online (AOL) had been releasing versions of its client software that were steadily improving in accessibility to blind people using screen-reading technology; with the releases of AOL 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0, accessibility had steadily improved. I pointed out that such accessibility to the AOL software as the blind enjoyed depended on a joint effort between AOL and the various screen-access technology companies meeting each other halfway. I concluded by saying that AOL as a company had decided to make accessibility "an important and highly visible corporate priority."

It has been about three-and-a-half years since that article was published. Since then, has the accessibility of the AOL client software continued to improve? What is the current state of the relationship between AOL and the screen-access technology vendors? Perhaps of greater importance, can the blind use AOL as an Internet Service Provider as effectively as we use other, competing Internet services?

Access to the AOL Client

When AOL 9.0 was released, it could be used effectively with JAWS for Windows from Freedom Scientific. While AOL 9.0 worked with Window-Eyes from GW Micro, the Window-Eyes experience was not equivalent to the usability of the AOL software with JAWS. Nevertheless, the AOL 9.0 release continued the well-established trend of improving accessibility that had been started with the release of AOL 6.0. Subsequent to this release, AOL worked with the screen-access-technology vendors to support accessibility for two new products: AOL Communicator and Copland. While this work yielded some very positive and encouraging results, AOL Communicator and Copland were dropped in favor of a different software platform, Open Ride, which was released in October 2006. AOL made a conscious decision to postpone any work on accessibility to Open Ride and chose instead to allow time for the market to react to this new platform and for product developers to make any major changes resulting from consumer reaction before engaging screen-reader vendors to work on issues of accessibility.

This decision could be regarded as a significant step backward by AOL in ensuring accessibility to its client software. After all, one might reason, AOL was releasing newer versions of its client software (AOL 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0), and with each release accessibility had always been incorporated into the code--that is, until Open Ride. However, several factors should be taken into consideration before one leaps to this negative conclusion:

1. AOL 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0 were built on the same software platform, so accessibility support could gradually evolve over time.

2. The accessible AOL 9.0 software is still available to the AOL customer. There is no compelling need to switch to Open Ride in the short term.

3. Boxely, the technical architecture underlying the Open Ride client, will make it easier in the long run for AOL to ensure future accessibility once some initial work to ensure accessibility of unique aspects of the Open Ride interface has been completed. Boxely uses Microsoft's Active Accessibility programming interface, which has been a strategic lynchpin in Microsoft's efforts to promote accessibility in general. It is worth noting that developers at AOL have been focused on implementing accessibility support into Boxely, which is now the new technical platform driving Open Ride and other high-profile software such as AIM 6.0, AOL's free instant message product.

4. Many of the AOL services in which the blind might be interested are available through the aol.com Web site and thus do not require the use of the AOL client at all.

5. The AOL client is not a requirement to send and receive AOL email. Traditional email programs such as Eudora, Outlook, and Outlook Express can now be used.

AOL's Relationship with Screen-Access Technology Vendors

In an ideal world AOL should be able to make its software work flawlessly with programs like JAWS for Windows and Window-Eyes with little or no help from Freedom Scientific or GW Micro. The AOL application should behave in a way that allows the blind computer user effectively and efficiently to use all of its services and functions, and when a new release of the AOL client comes out, it should continue to work with whatever release of JAWS or Window-Eyes happens to be running.

While AOL's new client architecture, through its use of Microsoft's accessibility infrastructure, will significantly improve AOL's ability to deliver accessible products and minimize involvement from screen-reader vendors, we do not live in an ideal world, and for reasons far too technical to explain here, the next-generation AOL client cannot initially be made accessible to the blind without the screen-access technology vendors’ working cooperatively with AOL. We can complain about this reality, but it is what it is, and at this point we can do little to change it.

When AOL first began working to incorporate accessibility into its software, it provided its customers with the configuration files necessary for the software to work most effectively with products like JAWS and Window-Eyes. As its relationships with the screen-access vendors developed, AOL adopted the goal of having accessibility support incorporated directly into the screen-access software, and as long as the screen-access vendors’ product releases were coordinated with AOL's release schedule, accessibility support was achieved. From AOL’s perspective this meant that, if the screen-access software vendor chose to work on something else, AOL would be compelled to release a product that was not completely compatible with a given screen-access program.

As I said earlier, AOL did work with the screen-access technology vendors to support accessibility for AOL Communicator and Copland, and the company then chose to implement a different platform: Open Ride. Arguably, AOL could have stayed the course with AOL Communicator and Copland because of their accessibility. But AOL has taken a different tack with Open Ride, and it is worth pondering when or whether it will secure the cooperation it needs from the screen-access vendors to ensure that in the long run Open Ride can be made accessible to the blind.

To be fair, AOL and screen-access technology vendors are faced with sometimes conflicting priorities. Screen-access vendors, relatively small companies themselves, are trying to ensure that their programs provide as much access to Windows and Windows applications as is humanly possible. AOL is only a small part of the total package they have committed themselves to support. By contrast, AOL, being a fairly large company, has as a priority the release of software that will attract new customers and satisfy existing ones. While accessibility is a higher priority with AOL than it was in years gone by, it is not and cannot be the overriding priority that dominates every aspect of the company's operation. It is also important to note that, for various reasons, AOL may have a stronger relationship with one screen-access software vendor than it does with another. As a result there are often noticeable differences in the level of usability of AOL products from one screen reader to another. For example, users of JAWS 8.0 will enjoy a much higher level of access to AIM 6.0 (AOL's latest free instant message software, available at <www.aim.com>), than Window-Eyes users.

This is the reality with which we are faced, and it is possible that we as consumers may have to help AOL to develop other creative approaches to lessen its dependence on screen-access software vendors. At the very least we can help by helping screen-access software vendors to understand that, for the blind, access to AOL products is as important as it is for the sighted.

AOL as an Internet Service for the Blind

In the past one of the things that caused great concern among blind users of the AOL Internet service was the absolute requirement to run the AOL client software. Without this software none of AOL's services were available to the customer. Customers were required to use AOL's dialing program, AOL's email system, and the AOL client to access services such as news and entertainment, and if the software was not accessible, the AOL service was not accessible.

When I work with blind people to select an Internet Service Provider, particularly one that can be accessed with a standard telephone line, I suggest that the ideal Internet Service Provider is one that requires the installation of no additional software. A user should be able to dial into the service using the standard Windows dial-up networking program, and email should be possible using programs like Outlook Express, Outlook, or Eudora. I am pleased to report that today AOL meets these requirements.

Unfortunately, the configuration settings that need to be made to connect to AOL using the Windows standard dialer and an accessible email client can be difficult to find in a nice, neat package. You can find an AOL local dial access number in the United States by visiting the Web site <http://access.web.aol.com>. You can find out how to configure your email client to send and receive AOL email by visiting the Web site <http://postmaster.aol.com/imap/index.html>. I have not been able to find a public Web site that tells a person how to configure the Windows dialer to access AOL, but I feel confident that the AOL technical support team can be of help here. In this regard, you can email questions to <aolaccessibility@aol.com>. I also have in my possession a technical document that I would be happy to send to anyone. Simply write to me at <curtischong@earthlink.net> or call me during evening hours (Central Time) at (515) 277-1288.

I have recently learned that unlimited dial-up access to AOL can now be obtained for as little as $9.95 a month, and it is now possible (see <www.free.aol.com>) to obtain an email mailbox at no charge--a mailbox that can be accessed through any high-speed (or low-speed) Internet service that you happen to be using.


Now that America Online has free email, a Web site rich with accessible content, and access via standard Windows dialing and email clients, it is certainly as accessible as other services that the blind have favored historically. We are no longer required to use the AOL client, although we can use the accessible AOL 9.0 program if we choose to do so. While it is regrettably true that the latest AOL client, Open Ride, is currently not supported by screen-access technology for the blind, its underlying architecture should help AOL to simplify the task of making future versions of its software accessible to the blind. What I find to be of the greatest significance is that the blind through our own organization, the National Federation of the Blind, continue to engage AOL in open and frank discussions, and through these discussions accessibility has a fighting chance. I wish that we could have such a positive working relationship with all of the other Internet Service Providers.


Of Harvests and Gears: Fundraising for the NFB

by Jennifer Bose

From Dan Frye: From the Fall 2006 edition of the Town Crier, the quarterly publication of the National Federation of the Blind of Massachusetts, we are reprinting an article from Jennifer Bose reflecting on how she gets herself motivated to raise funds for the NFB. The Cambridge Chapter sponsors an annual walkathon. Jennifer’s thoughts and advice will be particularly useful to Federationists as we all get ready for our first-ever National Federation of the Blind March for Independence to be held this summer in Atlanta, Georgia, during our national convention. In preparing for this important national fundraising project, we can all benefit from Jennifer’s enthusiasm and spirit. Here is what she says:

In New England the fall breezes in, bringing air that crackles with a different kind of energy. As most of us humans see it, the last warm days of the season are to be appreciated, but as busy farmers and scurrying animals see it, the fall is a time to gather in the harvest.
Those of us in the Cambridge Chapter gather our own stores for the year ahead through a beautiful morning walk at Fresh Pond, our chapter’s biggest fundraiser of the year. In August we begin distributing flyers about the walk and letting people know that we will be at this year’s walk on October 1. Each of us hopes to raise at least five hundred dollars.

If any of you reading this article are like me, you understand that our chapters need funds for their activities, but you find it difficult to get in gear and start fundraising. Here’s an important thing to remember: once you are firmly in that gear, the fundraising process has its own momentum. It really is very much like riding a bike. In my experience I have had some long stretches on which all I needed to do was coast. I would ask people if they wanted to sponsor me for the walk or walk it with me, and, without needing any more information, they would readily agree and add themselves to my list. I find that those who know me best believe that any organization that I am raising funds for has benefited me in some important way and is worth supporting.

Sometimes, though, it is not possible to coast. When my sponsor list is not getting any longer, I need to exert more energy to get over the flat stretches. You have already asked these people for money; do you really think they will give you any more? You have hardly spoken to these people since you asked them for money the last time; what will they think? You do not actually know anyone who has a lot of money to give to the NFB, so do you really think you will raise a lot of money? These questions, which speak to my weaknesses at networking and maintaining better ties with people, come at me like big bumps in the road. But beating myself up about shortcomings does not work as a money-raising strategy. Neither does anticipating that people will not want to contribute to yet another fundraiser.
Inevitably the thought that helps me exert enough energy to get to more sponsors and more funds raised is that each year I can recall having personally benefited from chapter, state, and national funds. Chapter funds have been used to help set up activities for Meet the Blind Month and to buy NFB literature we read and distribute at meetings. Any time I have needed or wanted to travel to a convention or to Washington Seminar to advocate for legislation, chapter funds have helped me tremendously with expenses. Local funds contribute to state funds, which in turn support many national programs. One of my favorite national programs is the work of the Jernigan Institute, where the Kurzweil–National Federation of the Blind Reader grew in the last three years from an idea into a handheld device for reading print.

Each of you, when fundraising for your chapter or some other part of the NFB, can try the exercise of looking back over the year to see how you have benefited from the fundraising. Whether you have benefited in the same ways I have or in radically different ways, or whether for you it’s never the individual benefits that matter as much as the collective achievements for blind people, you can find the reasons you need to get in the fundraising gear.


Fifth Annual Meet-the-Blind-Month Campaign

by Jerry Lazarus

From the Editor: Here is Jerry Lazarus's report on Meet the Blind Month, October 2006:

It’s official. During the fifth year of Meet the Blind Month we have once again increased the number and types of events held throughout the nation. More than three hundred events took place in October 2006, during another active year by our affiliates and chapters. For a complete list of events go to our Web site at <www.nfb.org/nfb/Meet_the_blind_month_-_Events_2006.asp>.

The Meet-the-Blind-Month campaign, which was first launched in 2002 to be conducted annually during the month of October, is a coordinated, nationwide project designed to provide opportunities for members to reach out to their communities through retail establishments, health fairs, libraries, senior centers, schools, local civic groups, and community events to inform their neighbors about blindness and the NFB, ensuring that the public continues to learn more about our movement. Early planning by affiliate and chapter presidents, along with President Marc Maurer’s providing free Braille alphabet cards, NFB literature, and Kernel Books, increased the number of events and energized our chapters to seek new ways to broadcast our message.

Many of our members have become regular presenters of the Braille Is Beautiful video kit program at their local schools. The program, a disability-awareness curriculum for elementary and middle school students, includes videos along with a teacher's guide in both Braille and print. Braille Is Beautiful is an easy and interesting method for demonstrating and promoting Braille. NFB Braille alphabet cards are given to the students, and, after viewing the video presentation, students have a better understanding of the Braille code. After the video a follow-up discussion with blind adults achieves the goal of sharing with the students the importance of Braille and the way blind people read and write.

No doubt, this year a number of our events featured demonstrations of assistive technology devices, including the new Kurzweil–National Federation of the Blind Reader. This is the first portable handheld reading machine, which was released at our 2006 national convention. Having it this year provided a unique and timely opportunity for NFB members to demonstrate with pride a technology breakthrough that we helped bring to market.

Affiliates have been using Wal-Mart as a venue for their literature and fundraising activities for a number of years. This year many affiliates took advantage of these valuable locations, including California, Colorado, Maryland, Maine, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Texas, Virginia, Washington State, and probably more. White Cane Walks were conducted by a number of affiliates: California, Delaware, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, and Ohio.
Braille Is Beautiful demonstrations were presented in Alabama, California, Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Ohio, South Dakota, West Virginia, and Virginia. Affiliates that found public libraries beneficial as a venue to distribute information about blindness and the NFB included Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, South Dakota, and West Virginia.

One of the more novel events was the Great Blind Race held in Minneapolis. The Sunday Star Tribune covered this race with a short article and pictures. Twenty people competed in this NFB-of-Minnesota-organized event. The racers had to go to ten locations within two hours throughout the downtown area, including the Metrodome, the Basilica of Saint Mary, and Murray’s restaurant, then collect proof they were there. Walking, bus, and train were the only forms of transportation allowed. Bev Collins and Jennifer Dunnam were pictured in the newspaper article reading directions to their stops in large print and Braille. The winners of the race were Zach Ellingson and Greg Stilson.

Alyce Bouy, president of the Pueblo Chapter of the NFB of Colorado, combined a meet and greet at a local Wal-Mart with white cane races and relays for members and interested shoppers. Congratulations to Ron Lucero, who not only won the race but also joined the chapter after the event. Rick Holcolm came in second.

Cary Supalo, from the Happy Valley Chapter in Pennsylvania, organized an all- afternoon event related to teaching chemistry, physics, astronomy, and biology to blind and visually impaired students at the Penn State University Park Campus. This seminar was open to teachers, education faculty, and current students with an interest in teaching.

The NFB of Georgia held its fifth annual Black Tie/White Cane Appreciation Banquet, with Dr. Maurer, our national president, as the keynote speaker. The theme this year was Blind People Sharing the Responsibility, Sharing the Reward.

The NFB of Idaho, through its Treasure Valley Chapter, held its annual community recognition dinner (and silent auction) to honor several people who have helped in one way or another. Chapter president Dana Ard, Ramona Walhof, and Jan Gawith each presented awards during this fundraising event.

Marion Gwizdala and the East Hillsborough Chapter of the NFB of Florida taught a number of drivers a costly lesson during a White Cane Safety Day awareness and enforcement activity. Many Florida drivers appear to have forgotten that traffic is required to stop for a blind pedestrian using a cane or dog while crossing a street. During this event chapter members set up a tent near a busy intersection to distribute information about blindness and the law. In just three hours one officer wrote a total of twelve violations: ten for violating the White Cane Law, one for violating the right-of-way of pedestrians, and one misdemeanor for driving without a license. Violating the White Cane Law in Florida results in three points and a $60 fine.

All in all, during our 2006 Meet the Blind Month, chapters and affiliates stepped up to the plate and hit home runs with both new and traditional activities. The members, chapters, and affiliates listed in this article only begin to recognize those who planned and participated in the many events. We congratulate and thank all who were involved and look forward to hearing about the types of activities your chapter will conduct in October 2007.



The recipes this month were submitted by members of the NFB of Maine.

Peanut Butter Fudge
by Doris Featherson

Doris Featherson has been a member of the NFB of Maine for four years. She has a blind husband and two blind adult children.

2 cups granulated sugar
2 1/2 cups light brown sugar
3/4 cup milk
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 12-ounce jar peanut butter
7 1/2 ounces marshmallow cream
1 teaspoon vanilla
1 cup chopped nuts, optional

Method: Mix the first four ingredients together in a large saucepan and slowly bring to a boil so that mixture does not scorch. Allow to simmer for five minutes, then remove from heat and add the peanut butter, marshmallow cream, vanilla, and nuts. Mix completely but quickly because fudge sets fast. Pour into a buttered 13-by-9-inch pan. Allow to harden, and then cut into squares.

Whoppie Pies
by Doris Featherson

Pie Shell Ingredients:
5 tablespoons cocoa
5 tablespoons shortening
1 cup sugar
1 cup milk
1 egg
2 cups flour
1 1/4 teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon salt

Filling Ingredients:
3/4 cup shortening
3/4 cup powdered sugar
6 tablespoons marshmallow cream
1 teaspoon vanilla

Method: Mix first eight ingredients together. Drop by tablespoonfuls on ungreased cookie sheet. Bake at 350 degrees for fifteen minutes. Mix filling ingredients and place between two whoppie pie shells.

Sausage Suey
by John Batron

John Batron is president of the NFB of Maine.

1 pound ground sausage
Package of 4 or 6 Italian sausage, cut in one-half-inch segments
1 medium onion, chopped
1 small can tomato paste
1 small can tomato sauce
1 can condensed tomato soup
1 medium can tomatoes seasoned with basil, oregano, and garlic
1 pound pasta (I prefer shells)
1 pound parmesan cheese, freshly grated

Method: Cook pasta according to package directions until tender. Drain and set aside. Cook sausage, onion, and link sausage in skillet until golden brown. When meat is thoroughly cooked and onions are tender, add remaining ingredients, except cheese, and mix well. Add pasta to mixture and gently stir in. Pour into greased casserole dish and top with cheese. Bake at 350 degrees for forty-five to sixty minutes until hot and bubbly.

Corn Chowder
by John Batron

4 to 5 medium potatoes
1 medium onion
2 cans cream-style corn
1/4 pound butter (1 stick)

Method: Peel and slice potatoes. Place in large pan. Add chopped onion, corn, butter, and enough water to cover all. Cook until potatoes are tender. Add enough milk to make a nice milky soup. Heat through and serve.

Rice and Chicken Mixture
by Amelia Batron
Amelia is the wife of President John Batron and mother of Brent, a travel instructor at the Colorado Center for the Blind and past president of the Maine affiliate. She has been a member of the NFB for six years. She does most of the driving for the Maine affiliate.

1 1/2 pound chicken, cut into pieces
2 medium-size bags Minute Rice or equivalent amount long-grain rice
1 bag frozen vegetables, your choice
2 cans condensed cream of chicken soup
Water or milk

Method: In a covered skillet cook chicken in a little water until tender. Cook rice according to package directions. Cook vegetables to desired doneness. Combine rice and vegetables with the chicken in the skillet, the condensed chicken soup, and one and a half to two cans water or milk. Mix well and heat through before serving.

Tomato and Cheese Chicken
by Amelia Batron

1 to 2 pounds chicken breast
1 large can tomatoes (with basil, oregano, and garlic)
1 pound parmesan cheese, grated

Method: Place chicken in baking pan. Pour tomatoes over top of chicken. Bake at 350 degrees for forty-five minutes or until chicken feels done. Sprinkle cheese on top and bake for five minutes or until cheese has melted.


Monitor Miniatures

News from the Federation Family

The National Federation of the Blind of Washington conducted its election on Sunday, November 5. The results were as follows: president, Michael Freeman; first vice president, Bennett Prows; second vice president, Kristina Lawrence; secretary, Kaye Kipp; treasurer, Gary Mackenstadt; and board members, Kyle Parrish, Donald Mitchell, and Maria Bradford.

Employment Shadowing Program Grows:
The following brief article appeared in the October 18, 2006, edition of the Examiner, a publication that circulates in Baltimore and the Maryland suburbs of Washington, D.C. Yasmin Reyazuddin, who initiated the shadowing program described, is an active member of the NFB of Maryland. Here is the article:

Disabled Students to Follow in County Workers' Footsteps
by Dena Levitz

Montgomery County--About 160 disabled students in Montgomery County will take part in National Disability Mentoring Day today, the majority of them shadowing workers across the county. Program organizers said it's the fourth year the county has taken part in the event. The first year twenty-five students took part in the effort. Now included are 160--including both high schoolers and Montgomery College students.

“It's indicative of the interest and the need and the demand," said Stacy Rodgers, an official with the county's Department of Health and Human Services. She said the chief hope of the event is to change the thinking that people with handicaps can't fit into the workforce. “Students involved get a glimpse into a field they're interested in pursuing in the future; mentors can be reminded of what disabled citizens are capable of achieving.” “We want to help them recognize that colleagues who are disabled are still colleagues,” Rodgers said.

The vision for the event actually came from Rodger's colleague, Yasmin Reyazuddin, who is blind. At Tuesday's County Council meeting, Reyazuddin pointed out the significance of the Americans with Disabilities Act in allowing those like her to hold jobs. Stressing the need for everyone to pay attention to the plight of handicapped workers, she called being disabled "one of those minorities that everyone can potentially join every day.”

The students doing the shadowing today come from all walks of life and have varying disabilities. Of the 160, thirty who are more fascinated by technology will visit Verizon; sixty will follow and learn from county employees. The remaining seventy, who are less certain of their future paths, will take part in a series of career-assessment workshops at Montgomery College.

Angela Washington, the spokeswoman for the county's Human Resources Office, which also helped plan the event, said it's unclear whether there has been an increase in the number of disabled workers locally but that Disability Mentoring Day is about awareness, not simply numbers.

In Memoriam:
With great sadness Connie Norheim, former treasurer of the NFB of North Dakota, reports the death on June 13, 2006, of Greg Beach. Greg died of diabetic complications while under the care of Hospice of the Red River Valley in Fargo, North Dakota. He was born January 18, 1953, and at eleven months was diagnosed with diabetes. Greg fought a long and courageous battle against diabetes and its complications. He was elected president of the NFB of North Dakota in 1991 and attended several national conventions. He initiated the use of a pull-tab machine as a source of funding for the NFB of North Dakota. Recognizing the independence and companionship his guide dog provided him, Greg bought and donated several Boxer puppies to be trained as guide dogs. He was a member of the West Fargo Lions Club and owned and managed the computer repair shop, Digital Hospital. North Dakotans will remember Greg for his fierce determination to live an active life despite the many obstacles he faced.

The Weber/Davis Chapter of the NFB of Utah just held elections, and the following officers were elected: president, Chad Wilburn; vice president, Cheralyn Creer; secretary , Erin Wilburn; treasurer, Jeff Smith; and board members, Richard Condie and Dave Mahlstrom.

TV Listings Added to NFB-NEWSLINE®:
TV listings are now part of the NFB-NEWSLINE® package that has arrived just in time for the new year. Now you can find all the TV listings in one place, and they are only a telephone call away. Many NFB-NEWSLINE® subscribers already enjoy this free telephone and electronic newspaper service carrying 242 newspapers and magazines to forty-one states and the District of Columbia. Subscribers can press the 8-key option for interactive TV listings that can control date, time, and channel. After you enter “TV listings,” you can press the pound key for help. To sign up for NFB-NEWSLINE® or for more information, call (866) 504-7300. Look for a feature article with more specific information in the next issue of the Braille Monitor.

In Brief

Notices and information in this section may be of interest to Monitor readers. We are not responsible for the accuracy of the information; we have edited only for space and clarity.

Job Opportunities at Envision:
If you are legally blind and looking for work, consider Envision, a not-for-profit agency based in Wichita, Kansas. Envision has jobs in Kansas as well as at our military base stores in nine states. Job opportunities include administration, retail, and manufacturing. At Envision you will earn competitive pay and a generous benefits plan and may be eligible for relocation assistance.

Envision Wichita has immediate job openings for the following: T-shirt bag machine operator, roll bag machine operator, picker, orientation and mobility specialist, senior application developer, and account executive assistant--base service stores. Our base service centers at Peterson AFB in Colorado and Minot AFB in North Dakota are looking for cashier/stockers. Our Tennessee store at Millington NSA is looking for a part-time cashier/stocker. To learn more about these and other positions check our Web site at <www.envisionus.com>, or call Mark Benson toll-free at (888) 425-7072.

2007 Winter Rehabilitation Conference:
The National Association of Blind Rehabilitation Professionals, the National Blindness Professional Certification Board, and the Professional Development and Research Institute on Blindness are proud to announce the 2007 Winter Rehabilitation Conference on Sunday, January 28, at the Holiday Inn Capitol hotel in Washington, D.C., from 1:30 to 5:00 p.m. Preregistration is available online at <www.nbpcb.org>. The conference fee will be $20 for those who preregister by January 24. The fee will be $25 after January 24 and at the door beginning at 1:30 p.m. on January 28. The room location will be listed in the Washington Seminar list of activities.

This conference will be a training session on contemporary issues facing vocational rehabilitation counselors, rehabilitation teachers, orientation and mobility instructors, and managers and supervisors of rehabilitation programs for the blind. It will also serve as a planning session for the 2007 rehabilitation conference in Atlanta. The conference will be of particular interest to those currently working in the field of rehabilitation for the blind, students in professional preparation programs, those interested in travel training as a career, and those with general interest in rehabilitation for the blind. Conference attendees will be eligible to receive CE units towards the National Orientation and Mobility Certification (NOMC).

For more information about the conference, please contact the Institute on Blindness staff at (318) 257-4554 or email <instituteonblindness@latech.edu>.

Wanting to Hire:
Stay-at-home, part-time search specialist needed two hours a day, five days a week. Pays $15 to $20 an hour base plus bonus potential. Job requires pleasant, up-beat phone voice and energetic personality. Must be able to work independently, have a good work ethic, and be dependable. Position includes sourcing candidates and some referencing and credentialing--90 percent phone work and 10 percent computer work. Training and support will be provided.

Job requirements: minimal word-processing skills, sales acumen helpful, DiSC test required. Send resumé to <jwt.dna@mindspring.com>, fax (800) 804-8203, phone (800) 933-1884.

Monitor Mart

The notices in this section have been edited for clarity, but we can pass along only the information we were given. We are not responsible for the accuracy of the statements made or the quality of the products for sale.

For Sale:
I wish to sell the following products:

Blazie Engineering VersaPoint Duo model BP 2B-01, in excellent condition, barely used, will include reams of wide paper, asking $800;
Duxbury 10.5 with original packaging and manuals, asking $400; Double Talk LT, asking $100; Sigma-Martin five-string banjo, clear top, beautiful wood, with hard case, asking $550.

Purchaser pays all shipping fees on above products. Contact Laura Ann Grymes, (979) 680-0022, <agapepetsitting@gmail.com>.

For Sale:
Catalina Roisum would like to sell two items: a Braille Lite 2000 with external disk drive, all cables, and Braille instructions. Asking $1,000 or best offer--includes shipping. The unit is in excellent condition.

She is also selling a VoiceNote mPower with an external disk drive, all connections, and cassette instructions. Asking $1,000 or best offer--includes shipping. This unit is in excellent condition. She will accept PayPal or personal checks and will ship items as soon as the check clears or she receives payment from PayPal. If you have any questions, email her at <catroi@msn.com>.

Optelec CCTV for Sale:
In 1994 I purchased a top-of-the-line Optelec CCTV, and for the last eight years it has sat on the shelf. It has many features, including zoom, reverse image, and more. In excellent condition. Comes with padded carrying case. Asking $950 plus $35 UPS shipping. Contact Joe Morgan by phone at (719) 495-4335 or by email at <joe.morgan@pcisys.net>.

Lord Earl Houghton’s Elephant Wall Sculpture for Sale:
This bodacious grey elephant head is well designed and crafted. It measures twenty-eight inches wide by eight-and-a-half inches deep by twenty-two inches high. It is realistic in its representation of an actual elephant. The eyes, deep wrinkles, and ears are an accurate depiction of the beast. The tusks are white and six inches long. This would be a great item for someone with a safari décor or with a passion for elephants. It would make a great conversation piece.

I paid $139 for the elephant head and will sell it for $95, shipping included. Please contact Ed Bryant, 1212 London Drive, Columbia, Missouri 65203; Phone (573) 817-5993; email <ebryant@socket.net>.

NFB Pledge
I pledge to participate actively in the efforts of the National Federation of the Blind to achieve equality, opportunity, and security for the blind; to support the policies and programs of the Federation; and to abide by its constitution.